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So what went wrong?
Odette Best

received training to be ‘native nurses’ who worked in hospitals on settlements In this chapter, an indigenous historical lens is applied to the status of Indigenous nurses and midwives in Australia. I explore the establishment of Australia’s nursing profession, and compare training of white nurses with training received by ‘native nurses’. I suggest that Australia failed to respond to the British Colonial Nursing Service’s agenda and argue that this failure, in part, contributed to the poor health status experienced by Indigenous Australians. I propose that four issues

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

centuries. And it is not only in South Africa that the 1990s revisited some of these developments with a renewed relevance. In Australia and Canada, a number of major judicial decisions of the 1990s on the issue of land rights for Indigenous peoples have proved to be of continuing significance. In Australia, the Mabo decision of 1992 finally pronounced the death sentence on the doctrine of terra nullius

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
‘Australia for the White Man’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

, but as a State with a large number of Indigenous people and increasing numbers of Pacific Island and Asian workers it would not be happy that these were formally included in the vote. Western Australia, late into the field in 1890 with a Constitution and responsible government, would share Queensland’s anxieties for the same reasons. These concerns shaped the eventual emergence of two White Dominions

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

mind. 3 In this book, where we trace the general and particular circumstances in which political rights were accorded or denied to Indigenous peoples in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, from the 1830s to 1910, Merivale’s twin observations emerge as particularly pertinent. By situating the violence and upheaval of dispossession within a comparative perspective, we hope to identify shifting modes of British and

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
One or two ‘honorable cannibals’ in the House?
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

already existing and the new, and then conceded responsible government to the colonists. Further, by 1860 the legislatures of the eastern and south-eastern Australian colonies had instituted full manhood suffrage. Formally, the Indigenous peoples of the Australasian colonies, Aborigines and Maori, were included in this rush along the path to self-government and democracy. Closer examination reveals that colonists

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Indigenous people in British settler colonies, 1830s–1910

This book focuses on the ways in which the British settler colonies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa treated indigenous peoples in relation to political rights, commencing with the imperial policies of the 1830s and ending with the national political settlements in place by 1910. Drawing on a wide range of sources, its comparative approach provides an insight into the historical foundations of present-day controversies in these settler societies.

Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

Races Congress. Schreiner was notable in humanitarian circles as one politician who had resisted the colour bar in the Union Constitution, albeit unsuccessfully. None of the prime ministers would have welcomed reminders of social justice and equity issues relating to their Indigenous peoples in countries the whiteness of which they asserted at every turn. The leaders of Australia, Canada and New Zealand

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
‘A vote the same as any other person’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

As the colonies attained self-government the Colonial Office stepped aside from its responsibilities to protect the rights of Indigenous peoples, dissipating the influence of the APS and other humanitarian organisations that were now compelled to campaign on a multitude of fronts in their attempts to influence settler governments. In the local legislatures the language was

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
Rima D. Apple

Afterword Rima D. Apple Nursing has been and is shaped by factors internal to the profession as well as external influences such as governmental concerns; cultural sensibilities; racism, sexism and classism; physical and geographical conditions; and economics. Viewed from the vantage point of imperialism, nurses can be seen as straddling the metropole and the periphery, or bridging the gap between Western and indigenous medicine. Nurses were both icons and actors in this world. They provided nursing care and health instruction, and in that sense their work

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

four chapters begin to examine the embedding of Western-style nursing culture into indigenous cultures. These chapters widen our scope beyond the British Empire to include not only Australia and New Zealand, but also the Dutch East Indies and the American colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Issues such as racism and clashes of culture now come to the fore. The tensions between colonial nurses and their ‘Western’ culture of medicine and the traditional practices of indigenous trainees 3 Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins and their patients are examined, as are

in Colonial caring