The dualist and complex role of the state in Spanish labour and employment relations in an age of ‘flexibility’
Miguel Martínez Lucio
much depends on how you define numerical flexibility and what the legal
framework for temporary contracting is.
5 It is beyond the scope of this chapter to review the importance of the Basque state in its
ability to inculcate stronger forms of social engagement and dialogue; greater attention
in future is needed in terms of internal comparative analysis within Spain.
6 To be able to open a more systematic debate on this key period, the nature of industrial
policy in the 1980s and early 1990s would have to be studied carefully and the financial accounts of key
contention that one is faced with a complex legal problem 39 which may or may not be resolved on an ad hoc basis.
question is where to place the threshold for intervening with or without UN
authorization: on systematic human rights violations (such as systematic
discrimination akin to apartheid or ‘internal colonialism’), on
something more grave, such as so-called egregious crimes (i.e. ethnic
cleansing, war crimes, crimes against humanity), or only at the level of mass
Counterpoints, critiques, dialogues
A challenge for the field of contemporary civilisational analysis is to rethink
heterogeneity, plurality and differentiation in terms of porosity. Interaction
between permeable civilisations on different scales and across different dimensions invigorates heterogeneity. If anything, civilisational analysis has yet to benefit from efforts to unearth regular patterns of interaction and gauge the results
from long-term rhythms of engagement on the endogenous dynamics of civilisations. The relational model proves to be the
European context, starting with the loosening of the internal borders in
the then European Community as a result of the Schengen accords largely
contributed to the development of reflections on security, circulation,
and mobility. Largely informed by this political context, the medium-
and long-term impact of enlargement processes on issues of external and
internal security, especially
Marie Beauchamps, Marijn Hoijtink, Matthias Leese, Bruno Magalhães and Sharon Weinblum
geography in order
to provide a more comprehensive perspective on security and mobility.
To be concise: there are no clear-cut boundaries to be found
between those two strands of research, and scholars have already started to
transcend the permeable membranes between different layers of movement, as
is detailed below. And yet we feel that intensified dialogue between
mobilities and immobilities can in fact yield additional benefits
more disorganised in a race to accumulate, then raising the statutory minimum
wage may bolster support for (or subdue resistance against) the liberalisation
project (Koçer and Visser, 2009). Unlike the crowding out frame, the thesis of
legitimation is (in our interpretation) ambivalent about the procedure for raising the minimum wage: it may be achieved through trusting, tripartite forms of
social dialogue – deliberative negotiation rather than stringent state control –
since the distributive result is what matters for legitimation. There is a limit to
were fostered in multiple dialogues with foreign currents in philosophy, literature, politics and art
and with Latin America’s own multi-civilisational past. Modernists made careful
study of foreign trends. However, they also routinely tempered engagement of
international currents with the struggle to find a place for them in cultural life.
Writers, poets, philosophers and activists often turned to traditions they saw
as their own when looking to place themselves in the world. They were at their
most creative when unapologetically synthesising southern experiences
Damian Grimshaw, Colette Fagan, Gail Hebson and Isabel Tavora
for women’s wage penalties over the life course. Furthermore, employers’
exploitative practices towards female workers who are assumed to be locked
into local labour markets are found to hinder wage prospects and the exercise
of autonomy at work (Cooke and Xiao, 2014; Figart et al., 2005; Korpi et al.,
2013; Lewis et al., 2008; Merluzzi and Dobrev, 2015; Rubery et al., 1999;
Tavora and Rubery, 2013; Ugarte, 2017; Weinkopf, 2014).
– Employers’ pay and
employment practices (e.g.
internal labour markets versus
We must control our borders – it’s the
duty and right of each country […]. If over the five years or
the decade the country is flooded with hundreds of thousands of
illegal refugees, then there will be a real threat to our
internal system, to the character of the state and its very
future. (Prime Minister Netanyahu 2012b
police and educational establishments.
The attitude of the police to the EDL is ‘shut your mouth or you’ll get a slap’
(Matt). This is echoed by Ray, who notes that the officers policing the Bristol
demonstration had said ‘as long as we kept our noise down they wouldn’t arrest
us’. The response to such silencing is often external compliance but internal defiance: ‘I don’t care if the coppers batter us basically. I’m standing there as an
English patriot. I’m allowed to stand there. I’m allowed to say my views. He can’t
shut me up’ (Connor).
Piercing the politics of