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Jews in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries a polemical literature intended for internal purposes, a special section of which is devoted to the matter of apostates. It was clear to the authors of this polemical literature that at that time Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 37 20/08/2014 12:34:43 38 Apostasy and Jewish identity there were apostate Jews among the Christians, and that it was they who taught the Christians the arguments of the Jews. The polemical books fulfill a three-fold function: to strengthen Jews against Christian arguments, to serve

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe

troops of the abolition movement. As one of the most powerful groups to emerge from the sectarianism of the seventeenth century, Quakers retained internal unity and identity against an intolerant religious order, and directed spiritual energies to the practical alleviation of social problems. Commerce was one of the few spheres from which they were not excluded, and through extensive, mutually

in The other empire
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against others beyond and within the territorial boundaries of the imagined community, internal class divisions came to be seen as racial. 54 Racialization in this sense, therefore, refers to the appropriation and subsequent reproduction of a particular conception of race within hegemonic structures. It can take two co-existent forms. In one, the racialized groups are incorporated within the

in The other empire
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Imposters, legislators and civil religion

away from completing. Toland applauded Moses’ political prudence, especially his ‘plan’ of government, which if it had been successfully established in Judea ‘cou’d never have been afterwards destroy’d, either by the internal sedition of subjects, or the external violence of enemies, but should have lasted as long as mankind; which is to make a Government Immortal, tho it be reckon’d one of the things in nature the most subject to revolutions’. Toland proposed to discuss whether this immutability was based on ‘any promise and miraculous concurrence of God; or on the

in Republican learning

hope of attacking me by force. These men request that I at least honor Your Holiness’s rank, and that I excuse both your innocence and mine in letters of humility: the matter is not yet at the final pitch of desperation, if Leo X, through his innate goodness, will set his hand to it.’ And a little later, the rebel monk dared to prescribe the laws of peace to the highest Pontiff. He added, ‘No one should assume, Most Holy Father, that I will hereafter make a recantation, unless he wishes to involve his cause in a still greater storm. Furthermore, I will not endure laws

in Luther’s lives