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and situated their society in an international order that included a normative standard of civilisation (Gong, 1984: 164–​200). Suggestions that early Meiji Japan merely mirrored the West in development of imperialist missions are not especially convincing. However, there is little doubt that awareness of the greater outside world increased substantially in the early Meiji years and it could not but incorporate Western exemplars of imperialism. That was part of inter-​civilisational engagement. Greater awareness of international relations also increased the anger

in Debating civilisations

counterpoints are treated here from the point of view of paradigmatic dissonance, as well as from the point of view of common spaces between paradigms. In urging an elaboration of common ground between civilisational analysis and international relations, Jackson argues instructively that the lack of agreement paves the way for an agonistic strategy of carving new scholarly terrain out of dissensus. Jackson goes on to argue that by ‘working in media res, intervening into an already ongoing set of contentious conversations and exploring a novel combination of commitments’, it

in Debating civilisations
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which different paths of modern development were open and potential for broad international relationships was undecided. The Chinese order in East Asia 189 Conclusion 189 and the intercession of the West in the mid nineteenth century were contexts of encounters and inter-​civilisational engagement in which Japanese perspectives on civilisation were generated. Asia and the Pacific were often debatably represented in Japanese perspectives. Solidarity-​based versions of relations with Asia competed with expansionist and militarist ones, and ultimately failed to

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Uses and critiques of ‘civilisation’

consequences of this kind. How successful have they been? Process-​based approaches take the persistent ambiguities that haunt conceptions of civilisations as a point of departure. Analyses of civilisational processes are well known in comparative sociology. But they have also gained prominence in political science and international relations. A notable exponent of the processual image from sociology is Norbert Elias. The dissemination of his ideas is a contemporary development and therefore subject-​matter for the next chapter. One point to note is that his historical

in Debating civilisations

who have subsequently adopted post-​functionalist positions. Also, the critical dialogue they engaged in with modernisation studies conditioned their subsequent trajectory. If international relations scholars were added, Peter Katzenstein would be in the lead, with Brett Bowden, Martin Hall, Patrick Jackson, Robert W. Cox, Sadik Unay, Muzzafer Senel and Pavlos Hatzopoulos following. Others could make the list, including the proponents of the call for a Dialogue of Civilisations, such as Fred Dallmayr, Michalis Michael and Fabio Petito. The group identified by

in Debating civilisations
Jürgen Habermas and the European left

constellation as a multi-layered global order, consisting of a reformed basis of solidarity within the nation state, the development of new transnational forms of political community such as the European Union beyond the nation state, and the enhancement of international laws and institutions regulating relations between states and guaranteeing human rights at the global level. The idea of the postnational constellation entailed a differentiated and multi

in Antisemitism and the left
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

Pacific. But, as argued in Chapter 4, experiences of colonial intrusion, dispossession, subjection and dis-​embedding can be considered forms of engagement. It was also the case that forms of engagement in general were far from alien to islander societies. As an old world, Pacific civilisation was already relational and had a paradigm of engagement in the relations of exchange that islander societies practised and the cosmologies that endowed meaning to their connectivity. When European colonisation incorporated Oceanian societies into larger trans-​national networks of

in Debating civilisations
Hannah Arendt’s Jewish writings

a permanent property of relations between Jews and non-Jews, there are periods and places in which it appears obsolete, a zombie-concept in the language of cosmopolitanism, only to re-emerge in surprising new forms. 6 Modern antisemitism has long historical antecedents, but what was more urgent than reviewing its pre-history was to think about why Jews were once again defined as a ‘question’ in modern times and how this was tied up with the concerns

in Antisemitism and the left
Imaginaries, power, connected worlds

visibility over the long term  –​though there are interesting exceptions at the margins of that paradigm that stress long historical processes. Marxist explanations of economic relations focus on the exponential accumulation of economic power in various ways, but are less well equipped when it comes to civilisations as large-​scale complexes. Again, as we have seen there are interesting exceptions at its perimeters where there are openings to other enriching perspectives. Manifold links between societies of a longer pedigree are accentuated in global history and in the

in Debating civilisations
Open Access (free)
Universalism and the Jewish question

different shapes, at different times, in different places. It is like a ghost that haunts how others see Jews and sometimes how Jews see themselves. It interpellates social relations between Jews and non-Jews, Judaism and Christianity, Judaism and Islam, the Jewish nation and other nations, Jewish ideas and other ideas, etc. as if they were conflicts of a metaphysical kind between the abstract forces of inclusive universalism on one side and those of exclusive

in Antisemitism and the left