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other hand, if British coalminers were admired for their physical prowess, the acquired diseases and injuries associated with their toils meant that many experienced some degree of impairment. Our evidence shows that rather than leaving the world of work, these ‘disabled’ miners were expected to return to productive employment if capable of doing so. Such workers were valued for their skills and experience, even more so when labour was scarce, such as during strikes. For much of our period, elements of the ‘somatic flexibility’ believed to have enabled disabled people

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
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, such as workplace health and safety regulations; age restrictions on when people can start work; and medical institutions catering for specific populations. Not only did disability become visible in its modern forms during the period, it also helped nineteenth-century Britons make sense of the momentous changes happening around them. The existence and experiences of chronically ill or maimed workers were regarded by many as proof of the evils of industrialism, providing a rallying call for the nascent labour movement and a rationale for worker-led campaigns and

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution

, Dalziel wrote, was so serious that it took two months after their return to work ‘before they could be said to have been restored to good working condition’.55 Late Victorian newspaper accounts of strikes sometimes depicted miners and their families as being so weak with hunger that they could not walk.56 Moreover, in an industry where the ‘seasoning’ of workers’ bodies was important to making them strong and flexible enough to cope with the rigours of underground labour, absence from work, whether voluntary or enforced, could result in reduced somatic capabilities. In

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution

8 November that the UK proposal represented ‘a much more flexible and interested posture’ than the one that Labour had taken in opposition. 49 At the defence discussions at Chequers on 21–22 November Wilson soon obtained a mandate for the ANF. 50 However, on 19 November, Trend had told him of the continued vigorous support in the State Department for the MLF. 51 The main

in A ‘special relationship’?
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particularly impervious to the increased ‘flexibility’ sought by, for instance, the European Commission and the OECD. Longer-term prospects for the EU were not altogether bleak, however. Labour market reforms in the direction of greater flexibility were proceeding in many countries, setting an example to others. EU enlargement would increase trade and investment in the region and help to reduce the comparatively high unemployment rate in the new member countries. Finally, many more people in the EU would reach retirement age as from about 2010 and there would be fewer

in Destination Europe

. The nature of their bodily capacities was undoubtedly significant in this regard, but so too were the conditions and organisation of work set out earlier on in this chapter. These influenced the ‘somatic flexibility’ available in the industrial workplace and affected the ability of workers with impairments to participate in the labour force. The attitudes of employers and fellow workers were also important, as these could determine whether impaired mineworkers were actually welcome at mines or not. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was common to define

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution

than compensated for in terms of industrial diversity and economic flexibility. The economy of the Bristol region may not have grown as rapidly as many others in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but nor has it suffered the traumas of retrenchment that lately has afflicted so many British towns and cities. 13 This trend whereby Bristol was

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48

were lower in the mining districts of Northumberland, Cumberland, Durham and Cornwall than in other industrial areas or London. Compared to a national average of 28 out of every 10,000 persons committing property offences, the rate in these districts was merely 7 out of 10,000. This fact was explained by a relative lack of large towns in mining districts; the ‘primitive and simple habits’ of mineworkers and their families; and, above all, the constant ‘peril to life’ in underground labour, which served as a ‘quickener to the moral sense’. To ‘no class of men’, wrote

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Towards a union or not?

-European labour force mobility anywhere near that of 29 the United States. Closely related to labour mobility is the degree of ‘flexibility’ of labour markets, a theme raised in nearly every speech by ECB officials as they exhort EMU governments to undertake ‘structural reform’ in order to assist the euro. Most euro-zone countries have a panoply of labour market regulations that tend to restrict economic growth. Costly social programmes are financed by taxes that curtail business incentive. Generous payments to the jobless diminish their incentive to take up work. The costs of

in Destination Europe

doctors involved in new schemes could prevent patients falling through the gaps between different sites of oversight; the second – serving as a mirror image – was how practitioners could avoid unnecessary duplication of labour. In short, how could care be co-ordinated? Furthermore, in the context of political and professional anxiety about professional competence, both specialists and GPs asked how they could ensure that surveillance and treatment would be of sufficient quality. In other words, they asked what counted as good care, and how standards could be maintained

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine