An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister

?’ But regardless of hypocrisy and selectivity, there was a general acceptance that there existed this kind of order, in which the US broadly set the terms. At the ILO [International Labour Organisation], the US refused to sign many of the conventions, but it demanded that other countries sign. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, this order expanded. This was the world I encountered when I was appointed foreign minister for the first time, by [Brazilian President] Itamar Franco, just after the Gulf War. US hegemony was almost incontestable. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design

, a new and optimistic, less direct but technologically updated humanitarianism has confidently stepped forth. More de-risked and requiring less professional expertise than the labour-intensive direct engagement of the past, it is a cheaper Western humanitarianism designed for connectivity rather than circulation. Often called humanitarian innovation ( ALNAP, 2009 ; Betts and Bloom, 2014 ), a feature of this new humanitarianism is its enthusiastic embrace of adaptive design ( Ramalingam et al ., 2014 ; HPG, 2018 ). Moreover, unlike autonomous

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

law is now beginning to treat sporting activity, sporting bodies and the resolution of disputes in sport, differently from other activities or bodies. Discrete doctrines are gradually taking shape in the sporting field’ (Beloff et al. 1999: 3). In other sectors the weight of legislation and case law combined with the development of discrete doctrines has led to the creation of other activity-led fields of law. As Gardiner et al. explain: labour or employment law is a subject area that has only achieved recent recognition. It has its origins in contract law in the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

workers they choose, they also impose restrictions on the ability of players to seek alternative employment at another club. The Bosman ruling established that out of contract international transfer payments and nationality quotas were incompatible with Article 39. EU law therefore goes some way to protect the right of free movement for players in the EU. The rights of clubs to freely employ labour was not however guaranteed and some restrictions on players remained after Bosman. Although the ECJ did not answer the question concerning the compatibility of the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

known as EU sports law. The birth of EU sports law has wider implications. As an emerging federation the EU is involving itself in a growing range of policy sectors, some of which are extra-constitutional – they lack a formal Treaty base. This challenges the assumption that the EU is not omni-competent or cannot become omni-competent without huge Treaty reform. Of course the EU may not wish to become omni-competent in its truest sense, but in an environment where consensual decision making over Treaty reform is becoming increasingly laboured (particularly with the

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

used first to prepare for the European Conference on Sport (Assises Européennes du sport) held in May 1999 and second to identify more clearly the ‘real’ features of European sport and to preserve them. The Commission used the exercise as a stock-taking measure. As the working paper identified, not only is sport practised as a significant economic activity, but sport possesses socio-cultural and integrationist qualities that may well be worth preserving. A framework flexible enough to Reconciling sport and law 181 accommodate both characteristics yet compatible

in Sports law and policy in the European Union