; (syð)ðan Ingelde
weallað wælniðas, ond him wiflufan
æfter cearwælmum colran weorðað. (2063–6)
(Then on both sides the oaths of men will be broken; then deadly hostility will boil up in Ingeld, and his love for the woman will become cooler after the seething of sorrow.)
and literary evidence, in 1991 Kuefler argued that although ‘life was generally harsh, both physically and psychologically … at least some Anglo-Saxon children enjoyed great affection … and were treated in some instances with great love, in particular by their parents’.
Several years later, Sally Crawford's landmark survey, Childhood
England , extended Kuefler's rebuttal of Ariès and other social historians by including visual
-avian intimacy denigrates not only the slain human body, the fighting and agential body reduced here to morsels of warm meat for the pleasure of birds, but also the intimate human relations that, in the oral culture of the poem, provide the conduit for human knowledge production.
Homosociality and knowledge
In elite homosocial cultures, including both the warrior culture of Beowulf and the monasticism that probably produced the text, love and knowledge are transmitted through the same intimate bonds.
Accordingly, intimacy provides the scene for the perniciously normative way that ‘happiness makes its own horizon’, in that love, which is supposed to make us happy, ‘becomes an intimacy with what the other likes (rather than simply liking what the other likes) and is given on condition that such likes do not take us outside a shared horizon’.
Because happiness orients, as a promise, towards the future, Ahmed even figures intimacy as one crucial avenue for happiness itself: ‘if
silver mark burnt and weighed’, and
frequently read ‘in her chamber’, a copy of the now lost Life of Henry I,
which had been commissioned by Henry’s second wife, Adeliza of
Louvain, after his death in 1135.69 Gaimar evidently thought that the
Life of Henry I, a panegyric, was dull and suggested that the author,
David, should include some material about feasts, ‘love and gallantry, of
woodland sports and jokes’.70 This is interesting, since it illustrates that
Constance read and reread material which Gaimar considered devoid of
Emotional connections to the young hero in Beowulf
as they mutually achieve a costly victory’, even as (in Hill's analysis) their biological kinship remains relatively remote.
It is the only sib - (kin-) compound in the poetic corpus that includes connotations of aristocratic social class (contrast with sib(be)gedriht [kin-band], sib(b)lufan [kin-love], or the redundant compound sibgemagas [kin-relatives]). As such, sibæðelingas unites Wiglaf and Beowulf, even somewhat eliding their differences in age and fame, by emphasizing instead their shared
þæt ge on fara folc feorh gelæddon,
ond for dryhtnes lufan deað þrowodon (429–31)
(You intended, when you set out to sea, to carry your life to hostile people and to suffer death for the love of the Lord.)
Andrew underscores the echo of Beowulf's speech a few lines later by introducing the story of
address. H.D. invited Bryher in, and while Bryher ‘was waiting for a question to prove my integrity and the extent of my knowledge’, H.D. asked the kind of question that guarantees lifelong love and companionship: ‘I wonder if you could tell me something … have you ever seen a puffin and what is it like?’ Bryher responded, ‘They call them sea parrots and there are dozens of them in the Scillies. I go there almost every summer, you must join me next year.’
In fact, Bryher's chosen name was taken from the name of one of
One of the challenges of this collection is to read Beowulf in a more personal way. Although I had not given it much thought before, this challenge made me wonder whether my own working-class background might lie behind my love for the artefactual. I am a first-generation scholar, the first in my family to attend university, let alone pursue postgraduate studies. The norm was for men to leave school at sixteen (or younger) and find a trade, which they would remain in for the rest of their lives. My entry into middle-class academia might be viewed as a ‘success
. P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completus
. . . series latina. Patrologiae latinae, CLIV (Paris: Garnier, 1881), 384.
8 Andreas Capellanus, On Love, ed. P. G. Walsh (London: Duckworth, 1982), pp. 16–
18, 44–47; Étienne de Fougères, Le Livre des Manières, ed. R. A. Lodge, Textes Littéraires
Français, 275 (Geneva: Droz, 1979), vv. 244–313, 93–102. He also satirised women’s
sexual behaviour and alleged tendency to lasciviousness, yet also praised their piety,
using the countess of Hereford as a model of appropriate female behaviour.