others condemn it), both liberal and neoMarxist theorists share common ground on the extent of global change.
Among the more extreme formulations we read that: ‘The nation-state has
become an unnatural, even dysfunctional, unit for organizing human activity
and managing economic endeavour in a borderless world’ (Ohmae, 1990: 93).
The dissolution of state authority and the rise of marketised frameworks of
authority are presented as imperative transformations in a globalisation
process. Fundamental breaks with the past are staked out and labelled in
diverse ways, though
both the movement of travellers and commodities, as well as the volume of
such movements through the usage of lines of varying thickness. Snow, who
had a distinguished career in medicine, attempted to dispute the hegemonic
miasmatic theory of disease transmission by mapping the incidence of cholera
across London, demonstrating that the infection was being spread via a waterpump, and was hence water-borne. Although this was not in itself a flow map
as we would usually understand it, it nonetheless marks a significant milestone
in both the rise of infographics as