relation to rules governing the transfer of players. Again, not all rules have international implications. Stevenage Borough’s claim against the Football League failed because the League ruling preventing the club entering the Football League from the non-leagues did not affect trade between member states.8 Stevenage had argued that membership of the Football League would enable them to compete for a place in European competitions – a remote prospect (Beloff et al. 1999: 146). Sport and EU competition law 119 Finally, if the activities of sport are covered by Article

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: Co-regulation means any form of self-regulation with some sort of external, independent, incentives, oversight or form of backstop [including recognition] of a self-regulatory body by Government, law or a statutory regulator; approval of codes by Government or a statutory regulator; and compulsory membership or funding arrangements. 2

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principles of the four freedoms to be undermined. The belief system of the sociocultural coalition is held together by the logic of positive integration and a commitment to the socio-cultural model of sports regulation. Sport possesses social and cultural characteristics which necessitates a soft touch application of law. Furthermore, the market-based definition of sport adopted by the Single Market regulators conflicts with the socio-cultural coalition’s concern to develop a people’s Europe. Membership of the two advocacy coalitions is wide. The term ‘actor’ refers to

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. Policy communities tend to have a stable membership, are highly insular and have strong resource dependencies. An issue network by contrast has fluid membership, is highly permeable and possesses weak dependencies (Rhodes 1988, Peterson 1995). Within the context of the EU several policy networks may be in operation, some resembling policy communities, others issue networks. A related realm to that of policy networks is the idea of epistemic communities. Such communities are essentially knowledge based (actual or perceived) and are comprised of experts. Being thus

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for a judgment by the Arrondissementsrechtbank because the UCI had allegedly threatened to withdraw paced cycle racing from the World Championships (Weatherill 1989). Donà v. Mantero 197618 The second occasion on which the ECJ dealt with a sports-related case concerned nationality rules in Italian football. The Italian Football Federation, the Federazione Italiana del Gioco del Calcio (FIGC) controls the game of football in Italy. Under its rules, players are required to hold a federation membership card. Only the FIGC can issue such a card. Article 28(g) of the

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Gutiérrez Díaz MEP in October 1991 on safety in professional boxing.9 The third motion suggested that a common logo should be worn by athletes from the 12 Community member states taking part in the Barcelona Olympic Games.10 Written by Mrs Muscardini MEP, the motion recognised the symbolic significance of sport and sought to use this to promote European integration. The common logo would, according to Muscardini, symbolise the athletes membership of the EU as an ideal and unified homeland and as an appeal for democracy for all the people’s of Europe. The fourth motion for

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