Managing the criminal facets of war economies

postconflict or transitioning states. ‘In Bosnia and Kosovo, regional integration activities and the drive for membership in NATO and the EU have probably been the single most important factors pushing change in the security sectors’ (Law, 2006a: 121). Making appropriate changes to security institutions is rewarded with offers of or movement towards allowing developing states access to powerful global institutions and alliances. Conversely, failure in reforming RoL institutions is used as further justification for keeping developing states out of these same circles of power

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Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?

given EULEX’s ongoing executive powers. And while EULEX can do little to prevent any changes a future post-EULEX Kosovan government might make, the ever present ‘carrot’ of eventual EU membership may encourage compliance in the long term. In sum, customs reform has emerged as a useful tool for the international community on several fronts. Because of the strong performative value of securing state borders, success in this area of reform serves as a convenient conditionality for post-conflict states being granted statehood or heightened levels of status within the

in Building a peace economy?

Britain and Issues concerning the European womenUnion Britain and the European Union 249 16 ➤ The background to British membership ➤ The main impacts of British membership ➤ The ways in which the party system has been affected by the EU ➤ Future prospects for British involvement THE STORY OF BRITISH MEMBERSHIP Britain stays out When serious discussions began to establish a successor to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1956, Britain made it clear that it was not intending to join any new organisation. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, a

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Modernisation via Europeanisation

2444Ch10 3/12/02 10 2:04 pm Page 248 Brigid Laffan Ireland: modernisation via Europeanisation Introduction: EU membership as part of the National Project Membership of the European Union since 1973 represented for Ireland the achievement of a roof or a shelter for its national project of modernisation. Following a re-assessment of Ireland’s economic policy in 1958, when a decision was taken to pursue external-led economic growth financed by multinational investment, membership of the large European market with its CAP became highly desirable. Economic

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Domestic change through European integration

partnership’.2 In its international orientation membership in the UN (1955) and in the Council of Europe (1956) was achieved shortly after the State Treaty in May 1955 was signed and the Constitutional Law on permanent neutrality as the condition for regaining independence was adopted. Together with the socio-economic success story these factors formed the basis of a so far unknown strong popular identification with the ‘Austrian Nation’.3 While it maintained a rigid attitude on military aspects of permanent neutrality, Austrian politicians showed a more flexible stance in

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2 Labour’s organisational culture The purpose of this chapter is to establish the institutional context for Labour’s response to cultural change.1 It surveys the character of the party’s organisation and the nature of its membership on the verge of the 1960s, and in particular highlights the activities and assumptions of those most responsible for the party’s well-being. Before that can be done, however, it is necessary to outline Labour’s organisational structure and identify some of the issues to which it gave rise. The basic unit in all 618 constituency

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Smooth adaptation to European values and institutions

2444Ch6 3/12/02 6 2:03 pm Page 150 Teija Tiilikainen Finland: smooth adaptation to European values and institutions Introduction: EU membership as the beginning of a new political era Finland joined the European Union together with Austria and Sweden at the beginning of 1995. At first glance, Finnish membership might appear as a rapid change of political orientation, given the inflexible policy of neutrality the country conducted until the early 1990s. In spite of the brevity of national adaptation and consideration, the decision to follow Sweden and

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The impact of EU membership and advancing integration

EUD6 10/28/03 3:14 PM Page 101 6 Changing interests in EU development cooperation: the impact of EU membership and advancing integration Karin Arts This chapter examines two main lines of developments within the European Union that have affected the geographical scope of, political priority for, and substantive orientation of, its development cooperation policy. They are, respectively, the changes in EU membership over time and the ever advancing European integration process. These two processes functioned both as incentives and as restraining factors for

in EU development cooperation
The logics underpining EU enlargement

EU may also be the need to legitimise the policy in the eyes of its intended addressees. This would seem particularly necessary in the case of states seeking to join the EU. If applicant states do not feel that the EU’s enlargement policy is legitimate, not only could the EU find it difficult to exercise influence over those states (e.g. by convincing them to fulfil the membership conditions), but doubts about the legitimacy of the EU

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
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Another awkward partner?

policycycle. Joining late, Sweden has faced strong pressures of adaptation both at the state and societal levels. As the Union has advanced and become an increasingly complex organisation, countries seeking membership and new Member States are faced with a more difficult and steeper learning curve than the founding members. At the same time, latecomers are in a position to learn from the experiences of others. Sweden joined the Union in January 1995. The decision to seek membership can be seen as a logical consequence of the interdependence between the strongly export

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