Nationalism is perhaps the most powerful ideology of the last couple
of centuries. We attempt here to distinguish a number of varieties of
nationalism – liberal, reactionary and radical. There follows a
brief history of nationalism from the pre-Renaissance period to the
twentieth century, after which we consider whether nationalism as an
ideology serves particular political
the name of the nation, and states have disintegrated into bitterness and
conflict as a result.
Nationalism can be very exclusive. Much of the thinking
described in this chapter prizes a solidarity that is strong yet socially
inclusive. In section 1 the issue of solidarity will be explained.
Nationalists argue that solidarity derived from ‘thin’ concepts
like ‘justice’ and ‘utility’ cannot bind people to
Introduction All over the globe, fascism, racism and xenophobic nationalism are resurfacing in what we once
thought of as ‘respectable’ democracies. Following a particularly bleak weekend at
the end of October 2018 (the election of Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil, reports of worsening famine in
Yemen, Israeli bombardment of Gaza and the murder of eleven worshippers at a refugee-harbouring
synagogue in Pittsburgh), my colleague Dr Sara Salem of the London School of Economics tweeted:
‘It’s difficult watching political scientists scrambling to understand
An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of SOS MEDITERRANEE
depoliticising effect. SOS is an
emergency initiative that nonetheless provides opportunity for people who seek to engage
politically. JF: The arrival of more than one and a half million refugees and migrants on the
shores of Europe since 2015 has tested the idea of a ‘humanitarian Europe’. It has
tested the self-identity of many Europeans. To what extent do these younger activists see their
political engagement as part of a struggle against ethno-nationalisms to define European
identity? CAS: Switzerland is interesting in this regard. During the Yugoslav
countries ratified its charter in San Francisco. 3 In The Great Transformation , Karl Polanyi refers to a double movement that
occurs in the development of the ‘Market Society’: marketisation is followed by
popular attempts to secure greater social protection ( Polanyi, 1957 ). 4 Contrary to cosmopolitan hopes and expectations, globalisation itself has wrenched forth the
forces of nationalism. Bibliography Anand , S. and
P. ( 2014 ),
‘ The Global Distribution of Income ’, in
A. and Bourguignon ,
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
existence during which the national Red
Cross societies had acted as political intermediaries for the states, whose
auxiliaries they were – and still are – by statute. Simply repeating
an assertion doesn’t make it a reality, however, and denying a contradiction
doesn’t make it disappear; auxiliaries of the state serve the powers that be.
The French Red Cross, for example, acted as a potent echo chamber for nationalism
and its propaganda during the First World War ( Hutchinson
Comparing and contrasting propaganda in Serbia and Croatia from 1986 to 1999, this book analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of Holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called Holocaust industry, and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.
In liberal democracies there is a belief that citizens ought to take an active interest in what is happening in the political world. Political debate in modern Western democracies is a complex and often rowdy affair. There are three fundamental political issues: 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which feature in almost all political discussions and conflicts. The book assesses the degree to which the state and state sovereignty are disappearing in the modern world of 'globalised' politics, economics and culture and new international institutions. The main features of the nation and the problems of defining it are outlined: population, culture, history, language, religion, and race. Different types of democracy and their most important features are discussed. 'Freedom' is usually claimed to be the prime objective of political activity. The book discusses equality of human rights, distributional equality, equality before the law, the claims for group equality on the grounds of race, gender, class. Rights, obligations and citizenship are closely associated. Ideology is the driving force of political discourse. The book also discusses nationalism's growth and development over the last two centuries with particular reference to its main features and assumptions. It outlines the development of conservatism as a political ideology and movement in Britain during the last two centuries. An overview of liberalism, socialism, Marxism, anarchism, and Fascism follows. Environmentalism and feminism are also discussed. Finally, the book talks about how ideological change occurs and stresses the importance of rationality in politics.
This book assesses the formation of Croatian national identity in the 1990s. It develops a novel framework, calling into question both primordial and modernist approaches to nationalism and national identity, before applying that framework to Croatia. In doing so, the book provides a new way of thinking about how national identity is formed and why it is so important. An explanation is given of how Croatian national identity was formed in the abstract, via a historical narrative that traces centuries of yearning for a national state. The book shows how the government, opposition parties, dissident intellectuals and diaspora groups offered alternative accounts of this narrative in order to legitimise contemporary political programmes based on different versions of national identity. It then looks at how these debates were manifested in social activities as diverse as football, religion, economics and language. This book attempts to make an important contribution to both the way we study nationalism and national identity, and our understanding of post-Yugoslav politics and society.
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia
Paul Latawski and Martin A. Smith
at peace-building in the former Yugoslavia 2 by focusing on the challenges to
efforts to bring lasting stability posed by democratisation, ethnic
nationalism and the promotion of security.
peace-building roles in Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia
The deployment of the NATO IFOR to
Bosnia in 1995 in the wake of the Dayton agreement and associated UNSC
Resolutions marked the beginning of the Alliance