all workers and persons living under forms of audit-related precarity, such as those being constantly reassessed for disability benefit: T. Schrecker and C. Bambra, How Politics Makes us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).
88 See the mix of prevention and monitoring in the NSF. On the decline of structural solutions in post-war public health: D. Porter, Health Citizenship: Essays in Social Medicine and Biomedical Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), pp. 154
are discovered adjacent to an
obvious alteration, it is sometimes possible to arrive at a very clear date for
the objects, but rarely to a precise year.
The survey for this project was carried out by post and a total of 661
museums, archaeological units and individuals were consulted from throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Owing to financial
constraints the survey did not include every museum in each county and it
is likely that some finds have been missed as a result. Only the figures for
England have been calculated and, out of a
diabetes were as numerous as those from all infectious diseases put together’ during the 1930s, and estimates of the condition's prevalence rose steadily over the post-war period. 3 Likewise, medical professionals regularly referred to increases in workload and escalating consultations for the disease during the 1970s and 1980s; new technologies and understandings of risk management had extended the boundaries of treatment, whilst greater life expectancy and disease detection buttressed changes of demography, employment, leisure, and diet that probably underpinned
series of consecutive ideas about the nature of
the university where the distinction between ideal and reality was
not always obvious. Another important approach focused on the
university as an institution. Its organisation, administration, financing,
and so on were analysed from the perspective of structural history.
In the 1960s and 1970s a current of social history emerged, and
the social conditions and recruitment mechanisms of the academic
system came under scrutiny. The fourth trend, derived from the
history of science, regarded the university as primarily an
rationally planned and integrated care raised during post-war reconstruction were not realised in the ways envisaged by policy-makers.
Taking the gap between vision and practice as its starting point, this chapter analyses the ways in which diabetes management intersected with changing healthcare structures and emergent notions of chronicity during the two decades after 1945. Beginning with an overview of disease management strategies in the 1940s, it traces how the creation of the NHS confirmed diabetes as a hospital condition, one closely connected
decades, as countries begin to realise that structural reform will have to
be pursued even more strongly within their own borders. This could also
reduce the will to integrate further.
Today, for as long as it may last, no more general war in Europe
seems likely. Democracies tend not go to war unless they are attacked or
feel under intense threat. With democracies being the rule rather than the
exception in today’s Europe, there is good reason to hope that overall
peace inside the continent will prevail for some time, even though that
may not hold for military action by
, the Thatcher and Major governments were also motivated by a long-held desire of the British state to control NHS costs, and later initiatives built upon developments that took place before the 1980s.
Parliament and the Treasury had placed constant pressure on NHS budgets since 1948. Initial hopes that expenditure would decline as national health improved were dashed very quickly. Governments tried numerous strategies over the post-war period to control costs, ranging from the introduction of charges (most notably for prescriptions in the 1950s
left his post in 1963. These years, c. 1957–1965, stand
out as a comparatively distinct phase in West German post-war
history, a phase that can be separated from the preceding and ensuing
ones. ‘Dynamic times’ is a label given by historians to this period
of just under ten years.1
In spite of the growth and spread of prosperity, there was a
simmering discontent in many circles. One underlying cause was
the incomplete democratisation. True, the parliamentary system had
taken hold and been consolidated; but West German society was
not seen as entirely democratic. More
. Their intellectual and social success
depended on a reasonable knowledge of English. Kenneth James was
the pioneer of the TEFL [Teaching English as a Foreign Language]
unit, and succeeded in devising some instructive entertainments, the
Inspector Thackeray plays, whose fame spread beyond Manchester
when they were published by Longmans as ‘structural readers’ and
recorded on cassettes. Each piece contained three clues, ‘one obvious,
one less so and one hidden – in order to test comprehension and
Development of part-time, continuing, post
Practitioners (RCGP) incorporated diabetes care into projects of quality assurance and public health practice. Diabetes, in other words, became a disease more feasibly managed in general practice because of changes in the institutional environment, but it was also a disease around which general practice could be remade in ways consonant with broader professional projects.
Such endeavours cannot be divorced from post-war political and economic developments. The spectre of cost-control – and related calls for greater service integration and efficiency