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all workers and persons living under forms of audit-related precarity, such as those being constantly reassessed for disability benefit: T. Schrecker and C. Bambra, How Politics Makes us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015). 88 See the mix of prevention and monitoring in the NSF. On the decline of structural solutions in post-war public health: D. Porter, Health Citizenship: Essays in Social Medicine and Biomedical Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), pp. 154

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

are discovered adjacent to an obvious alteration, it is sometimes possible to arrive at a very clear date for the objects, but rarely to a precise year. The survey The survey for this project was carried out by post and a total of 661 museums, archaeological units and individuals were consulted from throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Owing to financial constraints the survey did not include every museum in each county and it is likely that some finds have been missed as a result. Only the figures for England have been calculated and, out of a

in Beyond the witch trials
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Managing diabetes, managing medicine

diabetes were as numerous as those from all infectious diseases put together’ during the 1930s, and estimates of the condition's prevalence rose steadily over the post-war period. 3 Likewise, medical professionals regularly referred to increases in workload and escalating consultations for the disease during the 1970s and 1980s; new technologies and understandings of risk management had extended the boundaries of treatment, whilst greater life expectancy and disease detection buttressed changes of demography, employment, leisure, and diet that probably underpinned

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

series of consecutive ideas about the nature of the university where the distinction between ideal and reality was not always obvious. Another important approach focused on the university as an institution. Its organisation, administration, financing, and so on were analysed from the perspective of structural history. In the 1960s and 1970s a current of social history emerged, and the social conditions and recruitment mechanisms of the academic system came under scrutiny. The fourth trend, derived from the history of science, regarded the university as primarily an

in Humboldt and the modern German university

rationally planned and integrated care raised during post-war reconstruction were not realised in the ways envisaged by policy-makers. Taking the gap between vision and practice as its starting point, this chapter analyses the ways in which diabetes management intersected with changing healthcare structures and emergent notions of chronicity during the two decades after 1945. Beginning with an overview of disease management strategies in the 1940s, it traces how the creation of the NHS confirmed diabetes as a hospital condition, one closely connected

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Towards a union or not?

decades, as countries begin to realise that structural reform will have to be pursued even more strongly within their own borders. This could also reduce the will to integrate further. Today, for as long as it may last, no more general war in Europe seems likely. Democracies tend not go to war unless they are attacked or feel under intense threat. With democracies being the rule rather than the exception in today’s Europe, there is good reason to hope that overall peace inside the continent will prevail for some time, even though that may not hold for military action by

in Destination Europe

, the Thatcher and Major governments were also motivated by a long-held desire of the British state to control NHS costs, and later initiatives built upon developments that took place before the 1980s. Parliament and the Treasury had placed constant pressure on NHS budgets since 1948. Initial hopes that expenditure would decline as national health improved were dashed very quickly. Governments tried numerous strategies over the post-war period to control costs, ranging from the introduction of charges (most notably for prescriptions in the 1950s

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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left his post in 1963. These years, c. 1957–1965, stand out as a comparatively distinct phase in West German post-war history, a phase that can be separated from the preceding and ensuing ones. ‘Dynamic times’ is a label given by historians to this period of just under ten years.1 In spite of the growth and spread of prosperity, there was a simmering discontent in many circles. One underlying cause was the incomplete democratisation. True, the parliamentary system had taken hold and been consolidated; but West German society was not seen as entirely democratic. More

in Humboldt and the modern German university
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. Their intellectual and social success depended on a reasonable knowledge of English. Kenneth James was the pioneer of the TEFL [Teaching English as a Foreign Language] unit, and succeeded in devising some instructive entertainments, the Inspector Thackeray plays, whose fame spread beyond Manchester when they were published by Longmans as ‘structural readers’ and recorded on cassettes. Each piece contained three clues, ‘one obvious, one less so and one hidden – in order to test comprehension and maintain interest’. Development of part-time, continuing, post

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

Practitioners (RCGP) incorporated diabetes care into projects of quality assurance and public health practice. Diabetes, in other words, became a disease more feasibly managed in general practice because of changes in the institutional environment, but it was also a disease around which general practice could be remade in ways consonant with broader professional projects. Such endeavours cannot be divorced from post-war political and economic developments. The spectre of cost-control – and related calls for greater service integration and efficiency

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine