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of the European Union as an international actor. Foreign policy analysis and the end of the Cold War The pealing back of Cold War bipolarity has revealed the extent to which underlying processes of societal transformation have changed the structural dynamics of international society in late modern Europe. These transformations have been concentrated in Western Europe but their

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

: scaling down ambitions to match capabilities and/or building up capabilities to sustain ambitions. Effectiveness denotes the capacity to implement policies. Arguably, state consolidation depends on some balance between the institutionalisation of state structures and the incorporation of mobilised social forces into them (Huntington 1968). A balance endows elites with both sufficient autonomy to make rational choices and sufficient legitimacy and structural capacity to mobilise the support and extract the resources to sustain these choices

in The international politics of the Middle East
Simone de Beauvoir and a Global Theory of Feminist Recognition

borders, it goes further by requiring the self to confront crucial ambiguities in what it fails to understand or represses – that is to say, the Other within oneself (Kristeva 1993 ). In summary, this chapter's turn back to Beauvoir's post-war existentialism suggests an ambiguous world community, always in a process of becoming and perpetually incomplete. It advocates a truly cosmopolitan feminist practice of

in Recognition and Global Politics

) final solution Finlandisation First-past-the-post system (FPTP) Flick Affair floating voter Fundis [See: Realos and Fundis] G-7 [See: Group of Eight] G-8 [See: Group of Eight] Gang of Four Gastarbeiter GCHQ case German question Gibraltar glasnost Godesberg Programme Good

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
A political–cultural approach

shaped by institutional contexts. Foreign policy, in other words, is not just a question of adaptation to structural forces (determinism), nor is it simply a function of political will (voluntarism). As Hollis and Smith (1990) : 168) argue, ‘Role involves judgement and skill, but at the same time it involves a notion of structure within which roles operate’. With an emphasis on the interplay between agency and structure, the

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

. 15 Recognition by other international actors as a necessary component of actorness from a discourse perspective is not a given. Neumann has argued that there is a difference between the role of ‘the other’ within constructivism and post-structuralism. The ‘other’ in constructivism contributes to constituting the ego by recognising ego. In post-structuralism the ‘other’ is

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

sociopolitical conditions that negate our multiple connections to others. Yet in each of those genocidal instances, neighbours viciously attacked neighbours with whom they shared communal bonds; suspicion and aggrievement stymie or thwart post-conflict reconstruction and social rehabilitation, which are essentially projects of re-cognition. Politically, then, recognition often assumes the

in Recognition and Global Politics
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls

-General of the WEU) as well as the designation of Chris Patten as ‘Super-Commissioner’ for External Relations 6 are structural measures towards this objective. Despite some criticisms of federalists against the creation of the post of ‘Mr CFSP’ (Dehousse 1998 ), this solution of a Council–Commission tandem seems to be the only one able to reflect the consociational/confederal nature of the second pillar which makes it necessary to base it jointly on

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

this only changed after the second Ba’th regime, which seized power in a 1968 coup, finally found a workable power formula. First, the Ba’thist leadership, a product of a decade of unrestrained power struggle, was convinced that only utterly ruthless treatment of opponents could defeat the natural rebelliousness of Iraqi society. Moreover, the man who survived the post-1968 power struggles within the regime, Saddam Hussein, an urban guerrilla turned Stalin-like organiser, was arguably the ‘fittest’ to survive in this environment. To consolidate his position, he

in The international politics of the Middle East
Between international relations and European studies

, despite the sensitivity of member states in the area of foreign policy, and their caution to move beyond intergovernmental decision-making mechanisms in this field, foreign policy has been one of the areas in which European integration has made the most dynamic advances. This includes institutional innovations such as the establishment of the post of High Representative for the CFSP and the creation of an EU Military Staff, both

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy