the core themes of this volume, it asks how and why new selves were constructed and regulated in the post-war period at the expense of structural adjustments to working environments, sets out a new timeline for twentieth-century subjectivity and historicises present-day concerns with work-life balance and the costs of overwork.
Acute fatigue and the regulation of working hours, 1954–72
In the twentieth century overwork was under-regulated. In fact, many
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.
Visualising obesity as a public health concern in 1970s and 1980s
preservation long pre-dated these post-war health education initiatives and had been evident since at least the early modern period in England, where dietetic culture was central to medical understandings of the self.
But personal body management techniques including the control of diet and exercise endured as an essential part of personal identity and social worth in post-war Britain, where the consumerist society contributed to the creation of new disease-focused diet cultures. The centrality of the self to risk factor
Balance, malleability and anthropology: historical contexts
as a yardstick of progress, and ‘Boasian culturalism’ (to use the sometimes pejorative shorthand) inverts the whole idea of this hierarchy. It does not invert the hierarchy itself (reversing the positions on the scale) but inverts the idea: from a vertical conception of difference to a horizontal one. This horizontal conception of culture, this cultural relativism is the ‘deep structural content’ of twentieth-century anthropology and post-structuralist history. Human nature here is malleable and the differences are non-hierarchical. Thus far I have only gestured
all workers and persons living under forms of audit-related precarity, such as those being constantly reassessed for disability benefit: T. Schrecker and C. Bambra, How Politics Makes us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).
88 See the mix of prevention and monitoring in the NSF. On the decline of structural solutions in post-war public health: D. Porter, Health Citizenship: Essays in Social Medicine and Biomedical Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), pp. 154
are discovered adjacent to an
obvious alteration, it is sometimes possible to arrive at a very clear date for
the objects, but rarely to a precise year.
The survey for this project was carried out by post and a total of 661
museums, archaeological units and individuals were consulted from throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Owing to financial
constraints the survey did not include every museum in each county and it
is likely that some finds have been missed as a result. Only the figures for
England have been calculated and, out of a
The post-independence state and the
conservative marginalisation of women
This chapter examines first how it was that the structure of the ‘traditional’ extended family and its values, often referred to as ‘neopatriarchy’, was able to adapt in a dynamic way to the challenge of
rapid social and economic change. This survival helps to explain why
patterns of male domination remained so all-powerful and generalised
within Algerian society, so that politically vulnerable post-independence
governments preferred not to challenge the status quo on the position
diabetes were as numerous as those from all infectious diseases put together’ during the 1930s, and estimates of the condition's prevalence rose steadily over the post-war period. 3 Likewise, medical professionals regularly referred to increases in workload and escalating consultations for the disease during the 1970s and 1980s; new technologies and understandings of risk management had extended the boundaries of treatment, whilst greater life expectancy and disease detection buttressed changes of demography, employment, leisure, and diet that probably underpinned
series of consecutive ideas about the nature of
the university where the distinction between ideal and reality was
not always obvious. Another important approach focused on the
university as an institution. Its organisation, administration, financing,
and so on were analysed from the perspective of structural history.
In the 1960s and 1970s a current of social history emerged, and
the social conditions and recruitment mechanisms of the academic
system came under scrutiny. The fourth trend, derived from the
history of science, regarded the university as primarily an
rationally planned and integrated care raised during post-war reconstruction were not realised in the ways envisaged by policy-makers.
Taking the gap between vision and practice as its starting point, this chapter analyses the ways in which diabetes management intersected with changing healthcare structures and emergent notions of chronicity during the two decades after 1945. Beginning with an overview of disease management strategies in the 1940s, it traces how the creation of the NHS confirmed diabetes as a hospital condition, one closely connected