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S.J. Barnett

too have wished to find in the writings of the philosophes evidence for palpably modern or proto-modern developments and have ignored telling evidence that there was no ‘birth’ of public opinion as such, but rather a relatively slow evolution of its traditional form, dependent on time, place and to a degree on the circulation of printed matter. Habermas’s The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1989) has been very influential in arguing for the emergence of a ‘public sphere’ in late Enlightenment France. According to Habermas, this ‘public sphere’ is to

in The Enlightenment and religion
Stephen Mitchell

social tension in society; and (4) a measure of tense personal relationships between accuser and accused. 3 While helpful, these four categories can and have been expanded and altered depending on the type of approach taken. 4 Following decades of study at the structural level of society, a more dynamic, incident-specific interpretive framework emerged in the 1960s. This approach is most closely associated with Victor Turner and did much to refine

in Witchcraft Continued
Alison Forrestal

leadership for bishops throughout Europe. In reality, these expectations were not fulfilled. Most historians, as well as those contemporaries best placed to assess their bishops, present a very different picture of the post-Tridentine episcopate in France. Both contemporaries and historians have frequently drawn attention to abuses within the episcopate, predictably focusing on the exploits of infamous individuals within its ranks, such as those who converted to protestantism or who lived particularly scandalous lives. Perhaps this is inevitable, for as one leading

in Fathers, pastors and kings
S.J. Barnett

post-Reformation ‘religious darkness was coming to a close’? For those Dissenters struggling against the Anglican Church and state, for Huguenots and Jansenists in France and for other religious minorities across Europe, bitter and at times bloody religious conflict and persecution were still the order of the day. From this point of view, claims about the end of the mid-seventeenth-century crisis bringing a vision of peace to Christendom should not provide legitimation for ignoring or minimizing the importance of politico-religious conflicts yet to occur in the late

in The Enlightenment and religion
S.J. Barnett

the deistic philosophes is simply to accept uncritically the world as the philosophes claimed they saw it. 16 The myth of Enlightenment deism Deism, diverse in form and thus difficult to define, has generally been accepted as entailing belief in God and even of post mortem rewards and punishments. It was, however, a God usually remote from everyday human concerns. Deists thus dismissed the need for any mediation between humanity and divinity in the form of the Church and dismissed the Church’s claimed mediation as selfinterested fraud. This sort of view was

in The Enlightenment and religion
Sabina Magliocco

War, as scholarship began to reflect a greater interest in contemporary social conditions and issues of power imbalances between the industrialized north and the underdeveloped Meridione (south) in the developing nation-state. It was the Socialist writer Antonio Gramsci, who was imprisoned by Mussolini, who most strongly influenced the post-Second World War generation of Italian ethnologists. Gramsci’s writings on

in Witchcraft Continued
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Mirrors of French ideals?
Alison Forrestal

turn perhaps explains why non-episcopal clergy may have felt less qualified to produce this type of very specialised text, and so concentrated on the generally more straightforward and traditional hagiography. Manuals of instruction tended to follow a distinct structural pattern, although they varied in length from reasonably compact volumes to extended chap 6 22/3/04 12:54 pm Page 173 MANUALS AND HAGIOGRAPHY 173 treatises like those of Bishop Camus. After an introductory preface in which the author revealed his intention to provide a source of information and

in Fathers, pastors and kings
Brian Hoggard

are discovered adjacent to an obvious alteration, it is sometimes possible to arrive at a very clear date for the objects, but rarely to a precise year. The survey The survey for this project was carried out by post and a total of 661 museums, archaeological units and individuals were consulted from throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Owing to financial constraints the survey did not include every museum in each county and it is likely that some finds have been missed as a result. Only the figures for England have been calculated and, out of a

in Beyond the witch trials