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Irish MPs for Sinn Fein in the post-war election who refused to go to Westminster and promptly declared an Irish Republic. The subsequent Anglo-Irish War lasted until 1921, when the British Government and the Irish ‘government’ agreed to the partition of the island into a twenty-six-county Free State and a six-county Northern Ireland remaining within the UK, but with its own ‘devolved’ government at Stormont Castle

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe

threat that German reunification presented to the European balance of power and, hence, to Britain’s position. Britain perceived NATO as the conditio sine qua non of the post-Cold War settlement. Britain insisted throughout the ‘2 plus 4’ negotiations that a unified Germany would have to be a NATO member and that NATO should remain the linchpin of European security. Throughout the Cold War, British defence policy had become so integrated with NATO policy that it was difficult to separate the two.63 In the mid-1990s, the British view started shifting towards supporting

in Theory and reform in the European Union

. These thinkers and their ideas have had a considerable influence on the development of the post-war consensus , and will no doubt continue to influence twenty-first century politics and economics. consensus A general agreement on basic principles, disagreement being confined to details. Government in Britain from 1945 to 1979 is often said to have been ‘consensual’ since most main parties

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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could be adapted to a very positive role if socialist parties acquired power by constitutional means. This belief reached its apogee in Britain during and just after the Second World War. State planning helped to defeat Britain’s enemies and could, it was believed, win the war against ignorance, poverty and want at home. Social reformism was the dominant ideology throughout most of the post-war era

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Conservative leaders came to terms with the social-democratic welfare state by both accepting and extending it. Harold Macmillan, R. A. Butler and other modernisers within the Conservative Party ensured its post-war electoral successes. In the 1980s Mrs Thatcher struggled with what she perceived as the hegemony of socialist and social-democratic doctrine permeating all levels of British society. Her conservatism sought to link the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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nationalism; nationalism in the age of revolutions; twentieth-century nationalism; post- Cold War nationalism. Cold War A term which refers to the struggle between the West and the Soviet Union from just after the Second World War to the late 1980s. It was a conflict that stopped short of a fullscale ‘hot war’. Proto-nationalism Before the European Renaissance there

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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across the political spectrum. This very achievement created problems for liberal parties, such as the British Liberal/Liberal Democrat Party, as they seemed to have worked their way out of a job. The British Liberals had been perceived by the electorate as a party of the middle ground during the post-war era. By 2001 the Liberal Democrats were beginning to position themselves somewhere to the left of New

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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. 4 Eric Hobsbawm, ‘Introduction: Inventing Traditions’, in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (eds), The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 5 Randall Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 212. 6

in Cultivating political and public identity
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Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

, while darker pasts have to be persistently reasserted. As part of the long process of problematising but not dissembling myths, Australia’s post-​war turn from British allegiance in foreign policy to alliance with the United States has shaped its place in the western Pacific. Relations with island states are imbued with an imaginary of state and capitalist power. Australia assumed a role of regional power acting in close proximity to US interests. In the wake of decolonisation, Australian policy cast the Pacific as a zone of few economic prospects, heightened

in Debating civilisations

social, economic, political and cultural life. Over time, and with each wave, more and more of the world is incorporated into common dynamics. The first wave is synonymous with the Axial Age. In the second wave (1500–​ 1600), Europe’s early modern empires conquered and colonised the Western hemisphere. Indigenous peoples suffered colonial occupation as genocidal conquest and millions of Africans suffered it as the catastrophic slave trade. War and world power were internationalised in the third wave (1750–​1815), with Britain emerging as the premier European force at

in Debating civilisations