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equality between men and women. The harsh physical conditions and security issues led to social norms being eventually surpassed by the glorification of physical labour, militarism and masculinized traits. Productivity targets and the prioritizing of physical labour intensified the segregation of men and women. Women’s work became associated with a lack of productivity and power and was thus rendered less

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Open Access (free)
The international system and the Middle East

since the (formal) retreat of Western empires. As Sadeq al-Azm has noted, the Arabs and Muslims, viewing themselves as a historically great nation and bearers of God’s true religion, find it hard to accept their domination by the West ( Arab Studies Quarterly , 19:3, 1997, 124). As such, external intervention and its often damaging consequences has stimulated an on-going reaction manifested in nationalist and Islamic movements, in the rise of revisionist states, and in the attempts of regional states to assert autonomy and to restructure

in The international politics of the Middle East
Israel and a Palestinian state

equitable allocation of the shared water, but the commission still has much work to do to alleviate water shortages in the West Bank and Gaza ( Rouyer, 1999 ). 42 Part of the problem for the Palestinians remains their inefficient and localized system for accessing and delivery of water, particularly for irrigation uses ( Trottier, 1999 : 99–134). Severe droughts and the

in Redefining security in the Middle East

attention to those underlying interconnections which structure long-term behaviour; interconnections which could facilitate longer-term engagement among FSU states, especially under assertive Russian prodding. Continuing Russian hegemonic interests and the FSU Governing elites of collapsing multinational empires struggle to maintain their hegemonic position even as their relations with the regions of the periphery are fundamentally restructured.8 This has proven true in the Soviet and Russian case, as all Moscow-based politicians endeavoured to maintain Russian influence

in Limiting institutions?

3 The history and present of ‘Africa’s World War’ S The ‘failure’ of the DRC and the militarisation of peace peaking in 2010 of the International Security and Stabilisation Support Strategy (ISSSS) for the DRC, a MONUSCO officer argued that the escalation of violence in the Kivus over the last few years was caused by the DRC state being ‘inexistent’ (MONUSCO – ISSSS/STAREC liaison officer 2010). For this MONUSCO representative, some functions of the state did not work properly. So the task of international actors was to operationalise the state towards making

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making

to guide resource management and procurement decisions. DRMS facilitates establishment of a rationalised defence management system similar to those already in use by NATO allies. This crucial NATO-related budgeting and planning approach aids civil-military restructuring, especially infrastructure requirements. All of these US programmes reach well into the Eurasian area and provide an instrumental foundation for regional cooperation and integration.32 Since most of the Eurasian signatories started their PfP programmes during the mid-1990s, the NATO nations now

in Limiting institutions?
Explaining foreign policy variation

independent financial base and the regime fostered a loyal Nejdi business class entirely dependent on state patronage. Bureaucratic expansion absorbed at least a half of nationals into the state-employed middle class and once-radical workers were transformed into welfare recipients or white-collar employees. In a tacit social contract, the mass public eschewed political rights in return for vastly increased material and welfare benefits. The division of the country into privileged citizens, many of whom did little work, and non-citizens, who worked but were unentitled to

in The international politics of the Middle East

stabilise and rehabilitate the environmental situation and develop the region’s institutional capacity in order to implement the remedial work.49 In Phase One, the World Bank temporarily moved out of its traditional financial and technical roles to become an active participant in related negotiations.50 By Phase Two, however, the World Bank had returned to its more traditional role, focusing upon financial assistance and support of regional management and capacity building. Both the UNDP and EU-TACIS’s Water Resources Management and Agricultural Production (WARMAP) have

in Limiting institutions?