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the largest debt to Döblin is Günter Grass, winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. In interviews, Grass repeatedly invoked Döblin as a forebear. However, Grass’s literary works are less influenced by Döblin’s experiments with empirical case writing and psychoanalysis than by his realism and irony. Instead, the literary case study derived from the courts and legal settings continues to find its more conventional home in contemporary crime fiction and the detective novel. Both have become transnational genres that occupy middlebrow and popular segments of the

in A history of the case study

3.6 to 3.8. Every time you go up a point it costs us many millions and our interest on our debt’s going to go way up … money’s going to get tighter and our prosperity’s going to dip and our tax money’s going to dip, our expenses going up … we got a real serious thing on our hands’. 34 That day Britain took a $3 billion short-term loan from, as Bruce noted in his diary, ‘European central banks, the United States, and

in A ‘special relationship’?

usually indicate influence. It may well be the case that Diderot had long held those opinions, formed by the experiences of his life, and this is a very different circumstance from influence. So what does ‘intellectual debt’ signify exactly? Most will agree, I feel, that this term connotes influence. Let us assume, then, that Diderot had long held the ideas expressed in the article, but upon writing the article he exemplified, sharpened and reinforced his arguments via the writings of past thinkers. If his long-held arguments also shifted a little in emphasis because of

in The Enlightenment and religion
A game of chance?

members of Lancashire vestries or other prominent ratepayers were often the local manufacturers or merchants whose goods would be made available for sale to the vestry for this purpose.7 In practice, even the briefest survey of Lancashire poor law records reveals that parish officers faced a constant tension between thinking long-term and reacting to short-term local influences on the supply of or demand for relief. Thus the presence The economy of makeshifts and the poor law 79 of vagrants in the Lancashire market town of Garstang posed a persistent problem for the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
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towns or rural areas, for instance – and more widely the role of marriage and remarriage in the overall welfare package assembled by early modern families may have varied according to the prevailing causes of poverty and marginality. A further and overlapping literature that we must address is the increasingly sophisticated discussion of early modern propensities to vary household structures and to be tied into complex neighbourhood, friendship and occupational networks which could be energised when sudden and short-term or gnawing and longterm poverty overtook an

in The poor in England 1700–1850
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civil litigation. This includes pleas of debt, trespass, slander and disputes over land heard in the manorial courts; claims of breach of faith, defamation and testamentary disputes in the Courts of the Church; and litigation between subjects in the common law courts at Westminster and on 5 Maureen Mulholland circuit. The term ‘civil litigation’ may be anachronistic, but these cases are all examples of disputes between individuals and are therefore arguably within the term. Rationality The first requirement of a fair trial analysed by Joseph Jaconelli is rationality

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700

the scale, while the odds were in favour of the bookie in the long term because of the way odds were calculated, in the short term a combination of several bad debts and a run of punter successes could mean bankruptcy. Bookmakers were usually well organised, managing disputes, dealing with defaulters, or increasingly lobbying Parliament. The Rules Governing Betting were controlled by Tattersalls’ Committee, which had dominated the settlement of betting disputes nationally since its incorporation of the Newmarket Rooms Committee in 1899. Bigger bookmakers

in Horseracing and the British 1919–39
Polio in Eastern Europe

a shared attribute in the Eastern Bloc. As historian Gail Kligman put it, ‘Mobilization and control of the population were of critical strategic importance for the maximization of development potential, and attention to demographic phenomena was essential to securing long-term interests. In order to meet the relatively high labor needs of such economies, reproduction of the labor force became a priority planning item.’ 5

in The politics of vaccination

was now encouraging universities to expand and widen access to higher education, although it intended to pay as little as possible for the increased numbers, and students could only anticipate a decline in the quality of their education. Throughout the decade students struggled with financial problems as the value of the standard maintenance grant wasted away. Year after year the Government announced grant increases which fell short of the general rate of inflation and took no account of rising prices in areas of special interest to students, such as books, bus

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

decline merely coincided with, and was not caused by, the price regulations of Louis XIV. But common sense tells us that the edict of December 1665 contributed powerfully to ending an era of capital appreciation upon which, significantly, the magistrates depended to make their offices profitable during their years in office.35 However imperfectly obeyed in the short term, the reform edict ultimately damaged the interests of the magistrates. The Dutch War obliged Colbert to abandon his plans to reform venality. The paulette could not be suppressed, since augmentations de gages

in Louis XIV and the parlements