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Ezra Pound

David Herd

is, though, to make graphic the fact that given the aristocratic guise in which Pound was pleased to cast the artist, the term ‘enthusiasm’ was likely to have a limited or debased currency. All of which is frankly to acknowledge that to present Pound as an enthusiast is to argue against the grain. Except that Pound was an enthusiast. He was an enthusiast in the Modern, less freighted sense that Eliot describes; in the sense that he campaigned for, advocated and promoted his contemporaries. Joyce, recognizing his own early debt to Pound, described him as ‘a miracle

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Shakespeare’s genius

Hamlet, adaptation and the work of following

John J. Joughin

The survival of Shakespeare’s plays continues to demonstrate that literature means different things to different people in different contexts. To say that this facility for reinvention and restaging seems to be valued is not to reduce the evaluative to a prescriptive form of interpretation – indeed, the range of ways in which those texts we now term canonical continue to be valued and reinterpreted, often from diametrically opposed points of view, suggests rather the contrary. In considering the question of Shakespeare’s ‘uniqueness’, Stanley Cavell points us to the

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The stuff of tragedy?

Representations of Irish political leaders in the ‘Haughey’ plays of Carr, Barry and Breen

Anthony Roche

Haughey during the decades when the country itself was running up huge debt and the workers were being urged to exercise self-restraint with regard to their demand for wage increases. How, it was increasingly asked, could Haughey maintain such a life-style on a mere politician’s salary? Haughey’s style of leadership encouraged either unquestioning loyalty or determined opposition, not just in the country as a whole but more critically within the Fianna Fáil party itself. On the three occasions during the 1980s where he went to the country seeking an overall mandate, he

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Fantastically real

Reading Tomb Raider

Barry Atkins

large readership. This is not Dadaist poetry or the cut-up texts of William Burroughs, where the random juxtaposition of prose fragments produces the aesthetic product: one is always reminded that a coherent structure exists within the game-fiction, and that the inability to read correctly (most dramatically illustrated by the ‘death’ of the protagonist) is a consequence of a failing of reading. The presence of the ‘save game’ option, and its frequent use by players, indicates a recognition that it is common to read ‘badly’, at least in the short term, and that to do

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Managing the real

Reading SimCity

Barry Atkins

-infinite in the extent of their possible combinations. This text is so ‘scriptable’, to use Roland Barthes’ term, that it may appear as almost unreadable as text. ‘You’ watch ‘your’ city grow and change over time, zooming in and out of the screen to observe the daily lives of ‘your’ citizens in as much detail as ‘you’ want. ‘You’ can even switch off the menu bars and watch ‘your’ city ticking over without being reminded that ‘you’ can intervene. There are no fights to win, no exploration to undertake, no puzzles to solve. SimCity 3000 even disposes of those optional

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Gritty realism

Reading Half-Life

Barry Atkins

be termed an audio ‘grittiness’. As The Blair Witch Project (1999) had demonstrated so effectively to much of its audience, low visual quality, a first-person perspective, and a soundtrack of unexplained noises off can be combined with great effect within the horror genre. Music, of a kind, still plays as we move through the text, but in place of the kind of rousing orchestral accompaniment that had provided a backdrop for Lara Croft’s more impressive entrances and exits, or the explicit musical cues that had alerted the player to imminent danger, the soundtrack of

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Gothic materialities

Regina Maria Roche, the Minerva Press, and the bibliographic spread of Irish gothic fiction

Christina Morin

hyper-nationalist loop’ Hoeveler identified in The children of the abbey , these journeys reflect contemporary patterns of short- and long-term Irish and English migration and emigration, colonial expansion, and popular tourism routes. More importantly, at least in terms of this discussion, they speak to expanding bibliographic networks and the new transnational story of books themselves. Circulated throughout Britain, Europe, North and South America, and the British Empire, Roche's novels introduced readers to elements of Irish culture, history

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‘Our devices for that solemne and Iouiall daye’

The writers, the artificers and the livery companies

Tracey Hill

’s interpretation compares interestingly to the view of one contemporary writer, Jonson, whose view tended to be that there was a hierarchical distinction between what could be called ‘the body’ of a staged performance, created by the artificer (‘short-liu’d’, as he puts it, and appealing to the senses) and its ‘soul’, created by the poet (designed to appeal to the understanding).85 The former, more ‘artisanal’ part of the equation, also had connections to ‘plat’, ‘the technical term for the schematic working drawings used by the mason, carpenter and surveyor’.86 This highlights

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Rachel E. Hile

has ably demonstrated The Blacke Booke’s stylistic debts to Nashe (Puritanism and Theatre, 52–57), and Neil Rhodes discusses both The Blacke Booke and Father Hubburds Tales with reference to Nashe (Elizabethan Grotesque, 60–61). Heinemann notes that, whereas Middleton follows Nashe stylistically, the ideas he expresses both in The Blacke Booke and in Father Hubburds Tales align him politically with the Spenserian “tradition of Elizabethan Puritan satire … against the court and Church establishment—and thus on the opposite side from Nashe” (57). MUP

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Gothic geographies

The cartographic consciousness of Irish gothic fiction

Christina Morin

, even contemporary, times. Although persuasive in their insistence on the renegotiation of both temporal and geographical gothic landscapes, Clery's arguments fail to account for the decisively British settings of texts such as The castles of Athlin and Dunbayne and The old English baron . This latter text, it is worth remembering, was one of the few novels actually to call itself ‘Gothic’, a term it applied specifically to the ‘times and manners’ of fifteenth-century Yorkshire. 10 The interest in indigenous scenery, not to mention characters and events