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back to the centre. Though these paradigms are useful, I have long felt uneasy at their failure to account for disjunctures and contradictions that play themselves out, I would suggest, in a context of local differences that have little to do with the metropolitan centre. An example I examine in this book is the history of the Shakers, or Spiritual Baptists, a religious practice with its roots in the

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
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Frontier patterns old and new

knock-on economic and social effects for everyone. 5 It is, then, a region where an authoritative appearance of order and good governance disguises dystopic elements suggestive of frontier and hinterland. It should be understood that the Caribbean has had a long experience of accommodating this darker, wilder side. Historically, the role of the State as a force for effective regulation has, for a number

in Frontiers of the Caribbean

is the increasing acceptability of the ‘Wilderness People’, as they were known in the nineteenth century, as an urban presence. The Spiritual or Shaker Baptists, as they became known, were officially banned altogether for some sixty years for religious practices that alarmed mainstream colonial society (though the ban was enforced for less than half of that time). My second example is the changing

in Frontiers of the Caribbean

authority and unmediated access to experience and events. When the ‘I’ is a Prime Minister, that authority is at one level assumed to be incontestable; at another, however, all politics involve the shaping of the truth to suit a particular agenda, and most readers therefore will approach such a narrative with a degree of scepticism. Ruler in Hiroona plays with this ambiguity in such a way as to

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Kant

experience of nature, which, without the forms of identity involved in synthesis, just consists in endless particularity. The crucial issue therefore becomes the nature of the identity of that which synthesises, the identity of the ‘subject’. As Henrich shows (pp. 179–83), Kant shifts Descartes’s emphasis on the existence of self-consciousness, which is only ever certain at the moment of its reflection upon itself, on to the relationship of the thinker to every thought that the thinker could have, believing that if one can show that this relationship itself requires a

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art

what we can learn from aesthetic experience. In the Aesthetics he states, underlining his view of the primacy of artistic over natural beauty, that: ‘Far from being simple appearance the appearances of art should be seen as possessing the higher reality and the truer existence in relation to normal reality’ (Hegel 1965 I p. 20). Unlike immediate empirical reality, which appears to offer the most obvious source of truth, but which requires universal forms of thought to be intelligible at all, artistic appearance ‘points through itself to something spiritual [Geistiges

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

keep the poor in their wretchedness and sustain the rich in their usurpation. In truth, laws are always useful to those with possessions and harmful to those who have nothing; from which it follows that the social state is advantageous to men only when all possess something and none has too much. (III: 367) ‘Everything’, wrote Rousseau scholar Jean Starobinsky, ‘begins with the experience of social outrage’ (Starobinsky 1988: 221). For Rousseau tout le mal vient de l’inégalite – inequality is the root of all evil. Rousseau occasionally found it difficult to contain

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Art and interpretation

sensuous and the conceptual, the receptive and the spontaneous cannot be strictly upheld. Hamann maintains in his own inimitable manner that our need for language means that a notion of philosophy based on a priori forms of cognition lacks a decisive dimension. His argument is worth quoting at length, because its baroque form is also part of its content: So another main question remains: how the capacity of thinking is possible? – The capacity to think right and left, before and without, with and beyond experience? One needs no deduction to prove the genealogical

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’

itself which is manifest in the ever greater insight generated by the development of human thought and action. At the same time, it is clear from our experience of history that conscious reflection cannot reliably tell us where the history is leading. In a characteristic move, Schelling links the notion of genius to the notion of destiny: ‘the power, which, via our free activity without our knowledge and even against our will, realises purposes which have not been imagined is called destiny’ (I/3 p. 616); in turn, the inexplicable side of apparently free, self

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

issues – which Kant began to develop in the CJ – need to offer ways of showing that the realms of necessity and freedom cannot ultimately be separate because the purposes which guide my free moral action are connected to the overall purpose of nature manifested in myself as natural being. One way in which the Idealists try to conceive of such a unification is in terms of each passing, sensuous, ‘conditioned’ moment of experience finding its truth in the totality, the ‘unconditioned’ or the ‘absolute’, which gives it its meaning, as opposed to its being simply another part

in Aesthetics and subjectivity