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Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

pursuing their own strategies. In the context of the twelfth-century evidence, the following discussion of women’s participation in spiritual relationships with churchmen argues that this was an important route for male–female interaction, and that this stimulated the production of T 30 patronage and power devotional literature written for specific women. Thus such relationships between churchmen and noblewomen were a route for indirect female influence in the context of the production of specific texts. The role of twelfth-century secular noblewomen in procuring

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Fragility, brokenness and failure
James Paz

compensate for these alterations. A fragile tree is torn from its roots, but instead of dying gains voice and agency as the killer of Christ; the body of Christ becomes lifeless but the blood of his death unites flesh and wood, human and rood, and gives both broken, disused things a new vibrancy. Human beings are entangled with this kind of thingness and so the dreamer is afflicted and altered by the things he sees, hears and speaks, and is ultimately rendered an inert but talking thing  –​spiritually and verbally active but physically passive and dependent. While the

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)
Intimate relations
Irina Dumitrescu

teacher and student can take. At the start of the poem, Andrew is a proselytizer, teaching the people the path to life (‘leode lærde on lifes weg’) (170). He is also a hypocrite who fails to believe in God's power. Later, on the boat, he teaches his followers to have faith in Christ, recalling for them the miracles Jesus performed in their presence. Christ teaches him throughout, sometimes prompting him to search his memory for the keys to spiritual succour, sometimes embodying for Andrew the example he is to follow. Later, Andrew teaches the Mermedonians, but half

in Dating Beowulf
James Paz

Irish colour term glas, often translated as the colour of ‘sky in water’ or green, grey, blue. And so the bodily substantiation of God cannot be divorced from environmental features. Human beings  –​even saintly humans –​are not at the centre of a system of nature, but entangled within it.2 The elemental fluidity of Lindisfarne and the Farne Islands shapes perceptions of the spiritual world and its relation to the temporal. As well as acting as an assembly, the saintly body is also a thing that crosses the boundaries between life and death, animate and inanimate

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Open Access (free)
Daniel C. Remein and Erica Weaver

application to connections between abstract concepts. This is not to say, of course, that the intimate is a privileged realm of the human (indeed, scholars of the pre-modern have been at the forefront of studying queerly inhuman intimacies), but it does perhaps mark the ease with which our conceptualizations and readings of intimacy may relentlessly personalize – even when one or more of the intimate entities in question are decidedly not persons , or when what may be at stake in a given instance of intimacy turns less around the experience of individuals and more around

in Dating Beowulf
Thinking, feeling, making
James Paz

– indeed his very life – with the becoming of his materials’. 6 The craftworker does not necessarily impose a preconceived form upon raw materials but allows those materials to shape his or her thoughts. Understood in this way, craft unites manual and intellectual labour. Craft is making and thinking at the same time, hands and head, mind and materials, together. In both popular and academic spheres, craft is experiencing one of the periodic revivals that have recurred in industrialized societies from

in Dating Beowulf
Open Access (free)
On Anglo-Saxon things
James Paz

has questioned whether sensory experience allows direct access to reality, employing the term ‘hyperobjects’ (2013) to describe entities of such vast temporal and spatial dimensions that they defeat traditional ideas about what a thing actually is.12 In Entangled (2012), archaeologist Ian Hodder has questioned the human-​centred perspective in studies of material culture, discussing human ‘entanglements’ with material things and demonstrating how things have always directed us, defined us and driven our supposed progress through history.13 Anthropologist Tim Ingold

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
A queer history
Peter Buchanan

transposition into a domain that is more plastic and more rich in spiritual values’. 23 It is also from Monnier that we gain a glimpse of the relationship of the novel to the poem from which it derives its name: ‘Bryher has given to her book, in a manner that is half humorous, half serious, the name of the hero of the Anglo-Saxon epic.’  24 If scholars of early medieval England are interested in studying the reception of pre

in Dating Beowulf
James Paz

abstract concept or a divinity), but a physical object or being’.7 The weird creature (the OE wiht) we encounter at the outset of the poem, and veiled by its obscure speech, turns out to be a familiar phenomenon, a part of everyday experience. By taking on board the lessons of the riddles, and incorporating their approach to the material world into our critical practice, Tiffany’s essay aims to encourage the humanities to abandon uncritical assumptions about the nature of material substance, for ‘the reality of matter must always remain uncertain, always a problem that

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture
Enigmas, agency and assemblage
James Paz

hierarchy in terms of reading one side in light of another (whether pagan/​ Christian or secular/​spiritual or magic/​religion) but how each side is read transforms and is transformed by the others. This manner of reading the casket is as much about concealment as revelation and our constant awareness of what we are not seeing defies resolution. Even the text (on the back panel) slides from Old English to Latin, from Anglo-​Saxon runes to the Roman alphabet and back. Again, this transformation is not fixed but rectangular and continuously on the move. Via its use of

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture