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nomenclature standards for different stages of diabetes, and recommended quantified thresholds for definitively ruling out and providing diagnoses. 57 The hope in fixing such criteria would be to standardise units for statistical comparison (providing a powerful conceptual and practical precedent for managing medical practice). 58 Ultimately, the WHO standards appeared to make little immediate impact upon clinical care. Textbooks continued to use discordant terminology and diagnostic criteria, and the report itself was inconsistently cited. 59 Instead

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine

doctors involved in new schemes could prevent patients falling through the gaps between different sites of oversight; the second – serving as a mirror image – was how practitioners could avoid unnecessary duplication of labour. In short, how could care be co-ordinated? Furthermore, in the context of political and professional anxiety about professional competence, both specialists and GPs asked how they could ensure that surveillance and treatment would be of sufficient quality. In other words, they asked what counted as good care, and how standards could be maintained

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
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The creation of the NSF for diabetes in the early 2000s marked the consolidation of managerial approaches to the disease and its professionals at a national level. The framework laid out clear standards for high-quality care and strategies for achieving them. The latter built upon the registers, recall systems, care protocols, guidelines, and practices of target-setting and audit – the technology of quality – through which professional bodies had sought to subject diabetes care to structure and review over the post-war period. 1 Although it

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Open Access (free)
Literary satire and Oskar Panizza’s Psichopatia criminalis (1898)

unrest. Panizza describes the narrator’s fictitious psychiatric clinic as a ‘moderately sized mental asylum built between the rivers Nekar [sic] and Rhine, the size of a palatinate and on the grounds of Rhineland-­ Palatineon, the very ground on which have flourished the most tumultuous intellects’.11 This asylum can be identified by means of geographical proximity as Illenau, the model German mental hospital founded in 1842, at which Krafft-Ebing, Schüle and Panizza’s former employer Gudden had worked. The Illenau clinic was defined by a humanitarian outlook, yet its

in A history of the case study

‘difficult to disentangle’ and that they clearly ‘interact with each other’. He overtly criticised the previous standard textbook on Mental Deficiency by Alfred Frank Tredgold from University College Hospital. Tredgold had maintained that defectives were produced in families in which there was a large amount of ‘mental abnormality’ forming what he called a ‘psychopathic diathesis

in The metamorphosis of autism

wider model of social development in children, has always lent itself to controversy and intense debate about what those who purport to advance any theory of it are actually arguing. It has been open to such debate because it defines such an important and vital part of the theory of psychological development. It has always been a conduit for wider social anxieties because of the

in The metamorphosis of autism

Disrupting the welfare state’s ‘bonds of love’ If the Children Act 1948 and the publication in 1955 of the Underwood Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Children were significant moments in the formation of government policy towards children based on the Tavistock Model of Human Relationships, then the Mental Health Act 1959, the 1970 Local

in The metamorphosis of autism

Children’s rights in global context The 1970s and 1980s had brought important changes to the structure of children’s rights in Britain that had repercussions around the world. At the same time, Margaret Thatcher’s model of economic policy that encouraged privatisation of public services and a reduction in public spending, together with tax cuts

in The metamorphosis of autism

’s inclusion of psychiatric knowledge of female hysteria.35 In this context, Wulffen quotes leading psychiatrist August Cramer (1860–1912), then director of the psychiatric clinic in Göttingen, and his work Gerichtliche Psychiatrie (Forensic Psychiatry), which was written for physicians and lawyers, and contained a range of case studies. Thereafter, all of Wulffen’s criminal psychological textbooks followed the forensic model. Criminal psychological case compilations differed from medical case studies through the evidence provided, which, as expected, originated from medical

in A history of the case study
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the concept of autism in altering theories of social development in children. Early twentieth century evolutionary models of society generated a unique version of child development that was authenticated via social science, anthropology and political rhetoric. Theories of the ‘social instinct’ in infants and children developed alongside theories of intellectual development

in The metamorphosis of autism