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to depend on more than just trained professionals with good character, also requiring effective distribution and combination of staff as well as access to up-to-date facilities and treatments. For the most part, however, these criticisms left the existing framework of regulation alone. Despite dissatisfaction with elements of medical education, critics trusted the system to produce practitioners whose clinical judgements could be relied upon. 18 Later criticisms, by contrast, focused upon questions of knowledge and performance at the heart of

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Open Access (free)
Reconstruction and reconciliation; confrontation and oppression

Authority. In 1953, an outline for a European Political Community (EPC) was presented. It proposed that, following a transition period, the institutions of the ECSC and the proposed EDC be merged within a new framework. One European Executive would be answerable before a European Parliament (to consist of a Peoples’ Chamber elected by direct universal suffrage and a Senate appointed by national parliaments). Finally, one Council of Ministers and one European Court would replace the corresponding bodies created under the ECSC and EDC treaties. The European Movement seemed

in Destination Europe
Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise

reach clear answers by using moral frameworks such as utilitarianism to show ‘which are good and bad arguments’.38 Hare also promoted the benefits of philosophy in the growing number of interdisciplinary publications and symposia concerned with medical ethics. In a 1977 book on Philosophical Medical Ethics, he argued that if a philosopher could not help doctors to 146 The making of British bioethics understand and resolve ethical dilemmas, ‘then he ought to shut up shop’.39 ‘A failure here’, he continued, ‘really would be a sign of either the uselessness of the

in The making of British bioethics
Ian Kennedy, oversight and accountability in the 1980s

render them accountable to their end-users. It is no coincidence that bioethics emerged as a recognised approach in Britain once the Conservatives promoted external oversight as a way of ensuring public accountability and consumer choice. This analysis provides a framework for understanding the broad context in which British bioethics emerged and operated, connecting with major themes in contemporary history, such as declining trust in professions among neo-liberal politicians and the rise of measures designed to enforce public accountability, which Michael Power has

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Saving the White voters from being ‘utterly swamped’

men in charge of the new mines established a pattern of work practices which was to shape South Africa’s mining industry, and much of its economy, in the twentieth century. The mines themselves became dominated by just a few well-capitalised large companies, which agreed among themselves the basics of their labour policies. Skilled and supervisory work were reserved for Whites; unskilled and heavy

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
Mirrors of French ideals?

given a distinctly hagiographic hue. Étienne Molinier, who published a biography of Barthélemy de Donadieu, bishop of Comminges, shortly after the prelate’s death in 1637, observed that he did not intend his composition to be a panegyric or oratory: instead he wrote as a ‘faithful historian’ who was content to propose ‘the fact in its truth, and purity’.4 His work, however, was not simply a factual account of the bishop’s life, but rather used facts to exalt Donadieu’s character and actions within an idealised framework. With the return of stability to the French

in Fathers, pastors and kings