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Core historical concepts reconsidered

Act (Betriebsverfassungsgesetz) was much more moderate. It largely re-enacted the legal framework of 1920 which had been abolished by the Nazis in 1933. The unions had demanded more influence in works’ councils, including for works’ councils to have ‘significant veto powers over management decisions’, and for trade union nomination rights for the workers’ representatives on supervisory boards (in companies with more than 500 employees outside iron, coal and steel, one-third of the members of these boards had to be workers’ representatives). But these demands could

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)

effect decided that most of their number would cede day-to-day supervisory authority to a subgroup of the most powerful – the Quints. Within this caucus, the key decisions about target approval were often made by an even smaller grouping of three – the US, UK and France. What really counted during Operation Allied Force were not the formal structures of NATO, which reportedly were soon substantially cast

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security

discussion of levels of administration below, several distinctions should be kept in mind. One is between direct administration, which is generally the “own” administration (Bundeseigene, Landeseigene Verwaltung) by state agencies discussed above in Chapter 2 on the constitutional framework – for example, the federal crime office or air controllers; and indirect administration, which includes the “delegated” administration – for example, federal highway administration delegated to the Länder or the federal health insurance program delegated to regional sickness funds. At

in The Länder and German federalism
Open Access (free)

the IAEA regime, a comprehensive framework for international co-operation on nuclear safety has been set up. The agency has worked out a detailed set of internationally recognised safety norms and standards (Nuclear Safety Standards – NUSS), which are continuously reviewed and updated. The IAEA’s International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is used to classify nuclear events and accidents according to seriousness. Upon request, the IAEA sends advisory and review teams to member states to observe and help improve safety standards and activities. Within the IAEA regime

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Deciphering power in Russia

authoritarian political approach under Putin’s leadership, even a shift from an oligarchy to a ‘KGB-’ or ‘mafia-state’, in effect creating what some have called a ‘militocracy paradigm’ as the main framework for understanding Russian politics which underpins the de-democratisation thesis. 11 Elaborating on this broad canvas of balances between formal structures and informal rules

in The new politics of Russia

to read the documents and the public authorities are forbidden to make them public. Official documents other than the following ones listed in the Freedom of Press Act may not be kept secret in order to protect interests: • Sweden’s national security and foreign relations; • Sweden’s central financial, monetary and foreign exchange policy; • public authorities’ inspection, control or other supervisory activities; • prevention and prosecution of crime; • Sweden’s public economic interest; • protection of individuals’ personal integrity or economic conditions

in Sweden and ecological governance

process of elaborating a new constitution was embarked upon already in 1990, but it was only with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the establishment of the Russian Federation that the need for a new basic legal framework became urgent. Various drafts were presented during 1992 and the first half of 1993. Two of these became the object of serious discussion, one produced by President Yeltsin and one by the Constitutional Committee. As was to be expected, the President’s proposal prescribed a strong presidential rule, while that of the Constitutional Committee

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia

hosting military exercises and, perhaps most importantly, by ‘involving the Partners in the process of consultation, planning and review’. 45 Partner countries, meanwhile have adapted through hosting exercises, developing military co-operation amongst themselves within the overall PfP framework and becoming ‘familiarized with NATO standards and procedures even beyond the scope of peacekeeping’. 46 It is on the basis of this

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security

with profoundly different regimes? This chapter and this book cannot answer all of these questions satisfactorily, but they can help to provide some background and a framework for understanding how Germany and the Germans literally have come to where they are today. The focus, then, will be less on the larger issues of German identity over the past decades and more on the sources of identity of the people within Germany for the regions in which they live today. The Holy Roman Empire Following Charlemagne’s death, the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided his “Roman Empire

in The Länder and German federalism
Language, education and the Catholic Church

demands were granted. The 1974 constitution guaranteed ‘the right to belong to a nation or nationality, to express their national culture, and to use freely their language’.18 In socialist Croatia’s new constitution, which accompanied the new federal constitution, there were several references to a specifically Croatian language. Article 138 of that constitution stated that, ‘in the Socialist Republic of Croatia there is in official use the Croatian literary language’.19 This legal framework also allowed the Serbian people in Croatia to use their own language. Not only

in The formation of Croatian national identity