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Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Open Access (free)
The failure of history
Neil Macmaster

, the EMSI medical teams, and schooling of girls, these interventionist organisations were simply too thin on the ground to effect any significant change. The government lacked the economic and qualified human resources to sustain this programme, and the army commanders consistently prioritised budget allocations to counter-guerrilla operations (acquisition of helicopters, weaponry, etc.) and the ‘real’ war, which left those dedicated on the ground to a strategy of contact with Muslim women desperately short of funds and equipment. Finally, the objective of

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Steven King and Alannah Tomkins

land tenure and work location? How did the poor and the poor law balance the different elements of the economy of makeshifts in response to different life-cycle stages or different causes and 258 Conclusion 259 durations of poverty? Were there regionally distinct economies of makeshifts or were the similarities greater than the differences? How did the constellation of coping strategies employed by those who obtained poor relief differ from that assembled by those denied relief or too proud to apply? In particular, what impact did access criteria have on the

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Alannah Tomkins and Steven King

1 Introduction Alannah Tomkins and Steven King The poor in England Introduction Historiography of parish poor relief Olwen Hufton could hardly have realised her future impact on the history of welfare when in 1974 she titled two of her chapters on the poor in France ‘The economy of makeshifts’.1 It is a phrase which neatly sums up the patchy, desperate and sometimes failing strategies of the poor for material survival and has been much repeated since 1974. Other phrases (discussed below) may try to represent the same essential idea but none have been so

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Heather Shore

5 Crime, criminal networks and the survival strategies of the poor in early eighteenth-century London Heather Shore The poor in England Crime, criminal networks, survival strategies Introduction This morning one Rebecca Hart, a poor Woman belonging to the Parish of St. James’s, was committed to Prison for stealing several Quantities of Coals, the Property of Mr. Nathan Robley. It was sworn against her that she had declared, ‘It was no Sin in the Poor to rob the Rich; and that if it was, J— C— had died to procure the Pardon of all such Sinners.’ The Prisoner

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Chinese puzzles and global challenges
R. Bin Wong

of earlier state practices for constructing and sustaining such a large territory under a centralized bureaucratic regime and the proposition that the strategies and preferences that animated those earlier practices can still matter today, even amidst conditions that both we and the Chinese perceive in fundamentally different terms discursively. For example, observers of China’s reform-era changes have sometimes marveled at the open willingness of the government to tolerate diverse experimentation as it changes its institutional rules. Some China specialists have

in History, historians and development policy
The economy of makeshifts in the early modern north
Steven King

8 Making the most of opportunity: the economy of makeshifts in the early modern north 1 Steven King The poor in England Making the most of opportunity Overview The introduction to this volume suggested that the old poor law has been subject to a positive historiographical makeover by some welfare historians. To commentators such as David Thomson and Martin Daunton, the old poor law was a flexible, increasingly humane (by design or simple loss of control) and frequently generous system which came to represent the central plank of the welfare strategies of

in The poor in England 1700–1850
Open Access (free)
Patrick Doyle

that included how to stem emigration from the countryside; how to create sustainable employment for the rural population; and how to keep Irish agriculture sustainable and competitive within an international marketplace. Plunkett saw the IAOS as an agency that encouraged farmers to reorganise the agrarian economy along mutualist lines, while instilling characteristics of dignity and self-reliance in the rural population. 4 From the establishment of the first co-operative creamery in Drumcollogher, County Limerick in 1889, the movement peaked at over 1,000 societies

in Civilising rural Ireland
Neil Macmaster

4 The propaganda offensive and the strategy of contact The French army faced a major problem in its campaign of emancipation, how to reach out to the mass of over four million women, 98 per cent of whom were illiterate and scattered over the surface of a huge territory in villages or secluded settlements that were hours away by foot or donkey from the nearest roads. As we have seen (chapter 2) during 1957 Operation Pilot tested integrated methods of psychological action in the bled under the direction of itinerant propaganda officers, utilising tracts, slogans

in Burning the veil
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

significant increase in union membership across the coalfields so that, by the turn of the century, something like two-thirds of all workers in the industry belonged to their respective trade unions and, as John Benson notes, it was from this point that the unions ‘were able to exercise a really decisive influence on the life of the individual family’.20 Trade unionism in the coal industry was given further impetus with the formation of the MFGB, a union of miners’ unions, in 1889, and this organisation was to become crucial for the miners’ political strategies in relation

in Disability in industrial Britain