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Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

vision or strategy to ensure cohesion and consistency ( GoC, 2017 ; UNICEF, 2015 ). In many instances, this will involve building the capacity of government personnel – from extension workers at the community level to the Ministry in Juba – necessitating a shift of modality ( UNESCO, 2016 ; USAID, 2012a ). Bypassing the government, Norad argues, will have negative consequences ( Norad, 2016 ). Alternative approaches to enhance sustainability could include building linkages to national institutions (e.g. the Yei Agricultural College and the Wau Mentor-Teachers’ Union

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

Introduction This strategy is guided by principled realism. It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests… We are also realistic and understand that the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of progress . The White House, ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ ( The White House, 2017

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

Strategy of 2017 proposes that ‘the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of progress’ ( White House, 2017: 4 ). Renouncing progressive historical narratives, the Trump administration signals the end of the ‘American century’ and discards the particular universalism that has sustained liberal order. Posing direct, if distinct, challenges to US power, China and Russia do not seek to create an alternative to the multilateral system. On the contrary, they now become defenders of the institutions

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

efficiency, terms arguably more expected in a business environment than the field of humanitarianism. This has resulted, maybe not so unexpectedly, in a state of affairs where the main focus of innovation in relation to humanitarian action has remained on technical fixes or the development of new products, rather than a broader conception that interrogates innovation in a more holistic way, related to overarching humanitarian principles, strategies and partnerships. This understanding of innovation as a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

required to sustain human health and life are not recovering from growing environmental stress, natural disasters and climate-change impacts ( IFRC, 2018 ; IPBES 2019 ; Myers et al. , 2017 ; Whitmee et al. , 2015 ). The World Health Organization ( WHO, 2016 ) estimated that exposure to ‘unhealthy environments’ caused 12.6 million deaths in 2012, with South East Asia and Western Pacific bearing the highest burden, of 7.3 million deaths. In 2015, exposure to environmental

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell, and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

diversity and access to translation in humanitarian crises. We then explore how the ethics of crisis translation offers a distinctive perspective from which to consider humanitarian ethics more broadly. The final section discusses ethical dimensions of innovative strategies and emergent ICTs for crisis translation. Across these sections, we identify five layers of ethical issues, which are summarised in Table 1 and divided into three broad themes

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

as far as Colin Powell when he told an assembly of relief NGOs that they were a ‘tremendous force multiplier’ for the US military, but even in the Donald Trump administration that sense of things is by no means wholly absent. But if the view from Washington, Brussels, etc. may not have changed that much, the view of Washington, Brussels, etc., most certainly has. For all its bad faith, its selective implementation and, in the battle spaces of the Long War, its instrumentalisation in the service of military strategy, development aid from the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Paul Currion

innovation has been challenged by Mazzucato, who shows that the state has been a key actor not just by indirectly enabling innovation (through creating and regulating markets) but by directly investing in it, and that the state should therefore receive a share of the profits from that innovation so that the innovation cycle can be sustained ( Mazzucato, 2013 ). This analysis assumes that there is a market through which both state and private actors can profit, but it has been pointed out

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

‘acceptance’-based modes of operation, making it difficult for humanitarians to undertake the types of engagements necessary to develop and sustain fruitful relationships with key local actors. It is perhaps due to the aforementioned conceptual distinctions – between not only ‘deep’ versus ‘shallow’ but also mitigating vulnerabilities versus confronting threats – that humanitarians have largely embraced ‘acceptance’ as the desired security management strategy. The most effective security management strategy, it seems, would be to create buy-in from local actors for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

challenged the international system ( Spiegel, 2017 ; Madhiwalla and Roy, 2009 ). In the last decade especially, and since the start of the Syrian conflict in 2011, violence against healthcare has gained significant international attention. With mounting international pressure and in line with United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals 3 – toward health for all, and 16 – toward justice and peace, the World Health Assembly (WHA) approved resolution 65.20 in 2012 tasking the World Health Organization (WHO) to lead efforts on documenting attacks against healthcare

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs