Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese
and new, local and global, rather than arriving as a fully fledged cultural export from the West. These widely popular pills were marketed in Chinese-language publications in Shanghai from at least 1913 to 1941, and from even earlier in the North China Herald , an English-language newspaper that was also based in the city. While these Shanghainese advertisements employed the cutting-edge strategies of representation of the time, this progressiveness belies other aspects of the Pink Pills story, most notably its sustained reputation as backwards and outdated in the
were disproportionately subject to the experimentation of laboratory-based medicine that often caused more immediate harm than good to their families.
The Fowlers’ phrenology ultimately sustained the essentialist taxonomies from which it promised to liberate its adherents. Their programme of individualistic self-culture was also a means of self-regulation within a normative social code.
Phrenology has remained an undercurrent in Western medicine and culture, resurfacing recently in relation to
incentive payments. 17 As was the case in finance and associated areas of welfare provision, the remaking of relations of trust in medicine built upon a series of scandals, sustained political attacks, and popular critiques of experts and professionals emergent from the 1960s onwards. 18 At the heart of many calls for change in British medicine, however, were medical professionals themselves. 19 In recent years, neither medical scandals nor external criticism of medical care have ceased. Public trust in doctors and healthcare practitioners remains high, but a series of
the expense of stable family relationships.
Individual and collective, private and public strategies for realising selfhood, sustaining marriages and coping with crises at midlife were interwoven and bounded by political, economic and cultural contingencies.
The publication of Elliott Jaques's article in 1965 is often regarded as the moment of conception of the midlife crisis, as if it emerged de novo from Jaques's psychoanalytical practice and biographical study of
balance – as well its various synonyms and antonyms – permeated accounts of political stability, the cost-effectiveness of healthcare systems, the distribution of women and men in medicine and other professions, Eastern and Western approaches to the pursuit of happiness and well-being, the diversity and sustainability of ecosystems, and shifting patterns of infectious and non-infectious diseases.
In modern Western medicine, balance has been applied quite literally to the capacity
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William
was at its height:
Jules Verne's Cinq cents millions de la Bégum (1880), Camille Flammarion's Uranie (1889), and William Morris's News from Nowhere (1890). Morris's novel is now widely recognised as an important contribution to English social and political thought, but has rarely been studied in relation to health and disease. The two French novels have also received little critical attention in relation to this topic, particularly Flammarion's Uranie , which has not been the focus of any sustained analysis
arrived at the clinic, they ‘present[ed] an excellent and thoroughly atypical picture of it [their diabetic control]’. Being able to check on patients between visits to the hospital, Keen suggested, GPs could circumvent such strategies, proposing that ‘no-one is better situated to assess the degree of control of the diabetic than the family doctor’. 31 Moreover, unburdened by the busy strictures of the clinic, the GP, Keen also implied, might be better placed to deal with the social, psychological, and emotional concerns of patients – with the patient's ‘employment
negotiation) and provide the basis for effective audit. In fact, moves to establish national strategies to guide and monitor the performance of health authorities could be seen in the changing form of guidelines, which shifted from published reports to consensus statements and technical documents. Thus, though not connected to a formal structure or hierarchy at this point, leading specialists (along with the range of bodies to which they were attached) were part of a project to restratify the government of British medicine. Whilst not entirely successful, by the mid-1990s
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the
nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body
Projit Bihari Mukharji
from the Zoroastrian Zend Avesta to the Christian Bible as well as the Quran and the Indic Vedas on the other, Ray pursued his key strategy of ‘breaking metaphors’. The fascinating cosmology he arrived at through his strategy and his elaborate mathematical calculations are too rich and complex to unpack here. But it included, amongst other things, an ancient race of man-lions, an extremely dark-skinned Aryan race inhabiting the Arctic regions at a time when the rest of the planet was simply too hot to sustain life, a global climate change attended by large
The French human sciences and the crafting of modern subjectivity,
form of the intervention of medical or educational experts within spaces of control, or of research strategies for finding something out about the enigmatic content of the mind. This chapter aims to show that this version of modern subjectivity was defined, on the one hand, as a semi-autonomous unit that came to be called the ego, the Moi . It was understood to be visible through careful introspection only and had an inexhaustible content. On the other hand this modern version of what Jan Goldstein has called the ‘mental stuff’ allowed for a sphere of scientific