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José Luís Fiori

Introduction This strategy is guided by principled realism. It is realist because it acknowledges the central role of power in international politics, affirms that sovereign states are the best hope for a peaceful world, and clearly defines our national interests… We are also realistic and understand that the American way of life cannot be imposed upon others, nor is it the inevitable culmination of progress . The White House, ‘National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ ( The White House, 2017 ) The White House published the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editor’s Introduction
Juliano Fiori

distortions. And as liberal hopes for a pacific and technocratic utopia have taken leave of empirical reality, the assumption of progress has been sustained primarily through myth-making and cognitive gymnastics. Fake news is not the antithesis of liberal truth but its progeny. Nonetheless, the notion of liberal order is useful to the extent that it signals the role of liberal ideas and politics in the consolidation of Western hegemony and, more specifically, the expansion of American power. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms, set out in 1941

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Editors’ Introduction
Tanja R. Müller and Gemma Sou

efficiency, terms arguably more expected in a business environment than the field of humanitarianism. This has resulted, maybe not so unexpectedly, in a state of affairs where the main focus of innovation in relation to humanitarian action has remained on technical fixes or the development of new products, rather than a broader conception that interrogates innovation in a more holistic way, related to overarching humanitarian principles, strategies and partnerships. This understanding of innovation as a fix was

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

current structural, technical or resource capacity of the humanitarian system to respond to people in crisis with any proven efficacy ( Checchi et al. , 2016 ; Colombo and Pavignani, 2017 ; Spiegel, 2017 ). The most confronting factor is the magnitude of threat faced by communities from the deterioration of the physical environment and destruction of natural ecosystems on which their lives depend. The biological systems required to sustain human health and life are not recovering from

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

crises. We then explore how the ethics of crisis translation offers a distinctive perspective from which to consider humanitarian ethics more broadly. The final section discusses ethical dimensions of innovative strategies and emergent ICTs for crisis translation. Across these sections, we identify five layers of ethical issues, which are summarised in Table 1 and divided into three broad themes. Table 1 Ethical issues at the intersections of humanitarian action, crisis

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

when he told an assembly of relief NGOs that they were a ‘tremendous force multiplier’ for the US military, but even in the Donald Trump administration that sense of things is by no means wholly absent. But if the view from Washington, Brussels, etc. may not have changed that much, the view of Washington, Brussels, etc., most certainly has. For all its bad faith, its selective implementation and, in the battle spaces of the Long War, its instrumentalisation in the service of military strategy, development aid from the US, the EU and other Western

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Paul Currion

should therefore receive a share of the profits from that innovation so that the innovation cycle can be sustained ( Mazzucato, 2013 ). This analysis assumes that there is a market through which both state and private actors can profit, but it has been pointed out that ‘the aid system is at best a quasi-market’ ( Harford et al. , 2004 : 3). The problem most frequently identified as arising from the lack of a true market is that ‘[d]emand is driven by donors and policies

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

practices with a sound ethical and moral base. Anecdotally, there has also been a growing exasperation among practitioners at witnessing the same approaches being repeated, with the same misguided but not unexpected results. The quest for efficiency, effectiveness and data-driven strategies has informed aid policy for at least five decades ( Hilton, 2018 ). In the rush to record and justify their actions, however, humanitarians often have little time to reflect

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

-approved ‘reforms’. 3 This ‘catastrophic’ decision ( AFP, 2018 ) was widely denounced around the world as a form of collective punishment against the Palestinian people ( Bachner, 2018 ; Dumper, 2018 ). By the end of August 2018, when the US Government announced its decision to completely defund UNRWA, commentators identified this as part of a strategy to force Palestinian refugees to rescind the Right of Return to Palestine (a right set out in UNGA Resolution 194). 4 Many noted that undermining the Agency’s capacity to deliver relief and services

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

Roland Barthes argued, the reality of photographs, and their guarantee of authenticity, does not rest in the photographs themselves: ‘it is lent by editors and later by viewers who accept the claims made by texts that they are proof of “what-has-been”’ ( Barthes, 1977 : 44). The proposed contract between an event and its truthful representation was hard enough to sustain in the era of traditional, chemical photography, but it has become more difficult in the era of digital photography, in which editing and manipulation of photos is widespread

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs