This paper questions the extent to which the (arguable) end of the liberal humanitarian order
is something to be mourned. Suggesting that current laments for the decline of humanitarianism
reflect a Eurocentric worldview, it calls for a fundamental revision of the assumptions
informing humanitarian scholarship. Decoloniality and anti-colonialism should be taken
seriously so as to not reproduce the same by a different name after the end of the liberal
The study of European Union relations with Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana
control of the Brazilian government. In contrast, Spain modelled the universities in Latin America to resemble the organization of Spanish universities. More specifically, the royal universities replicated the Spanish University
of Salamanca, whilst the religious universities were modelled on the Spanish
University of Alcala. Thus, according to Murilo de Carvalho, the ‘twentythree universities were scattered in what eventually would become thirteen
different countries’ (1987: 56). The influence of Spain and Portugal also
continued in other ways following de-colonialization
variously named as “trans-modernity,” “border
knowledge,” and “de-colonial perspectives.” 50 At the same time,
these ethically segregated entities continue to enact, within a shared
historical stage, a principled drama, an endless clash between good and
bad, virtue and evil, morality and immorality.
Moreover, while Dussel’s original claims concerned
a supersession of phenomenology by an ethically oriented
Jack Goody and de-colonial historians. Integration of pre-modern global connections remains as yet more the domain of world history and economic history
than civilisational analysis (Inglis, 2010), a matter of great challenge to the latter.
How could comparative and historical sociology offer more to a reconstruction of connected early modernities? Arnason’s entreaty to civilisational
analysis to emphasise agency and the historical and dynamic nature of civilisations itself foregrounds the entanglements of civilisations (Knöbl, 2006a).
Nelson and Arnason