The role of the Congress is essential to any study of American government and politics. It would be impossible to gain a complete understanding of the American system of government without an appreciation of the nature and workings of this essential body. This text looks at the workings of the United States Congress, and uses the Republican period of ascendancy, which lasted from 1994 until 2000, as an example of how the Congress works in practice. The book illustrates the basic principles of Congress using contemporary and recent examples, while also drawing attention to the changes that took place in the 1990s. The period of Republican control is absent from many of the standard texts and is of considerable academic interest for a number of reasons, not least the 1994 election, the budget deadlock in 1995 and the Clinton impeachment scandal of 1999. The book traces the origin and development of the United States Congress, before looking in depth at the role of representatives and senators, the committee system, parties in Congress, and the relationship between Congress and the President, the media and interest groups.

Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

Congressional elections 17 Party believed that this document was central to their success in the 1994 elections. It was the first time that so many of the candidates of one party had pledged themselves to a national platform of specific policies which, they argued, offered a sharp contrast to the ability of the previous Democrat Congress to get things done. As we shall see, there is evidence to suggest that they were mistaken in this belief. Congressional elections Elections to Congress are held every two years on the first Tuesday of November, electing the whole of the

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

that they will repatriate (CD 1989: IV.1). In recent years the party’s nationalism is increasingly linked to the theme of European integration. The CD has always been sceptic towards the process of European integration. It opposes any limitation of sovereignty of the Dutch state and sees the Maastricht Treaty consequently as one of the many international defeats of the Dutch government. The Treaty was the main inspiration for the new section on territory in the 1994 election programme, in which the CD demanded a constitutional guarantee of the sovereignty of the

in The ideology of the extreme right
Laura Chrisman

(this is before the 1994 election) as a socialist who is concerned that the ANC – as opposition and future government – is silencing the voices and the priorities of working-class and socialist movements. His concern is to find a way for progressive and marginalised constituencies to create a politics that challenges the ANC’s monopoly.13 There is a lot to agree with in Farred`s argument. But I find problematic both the fatalism and the ambiguity of his presentation; his article suggests both a pragmatic and an idealist perspective. Farred focuses a lot on Inkatha

in Postcolonial contraventions
Geoffrey K. Roberts
Patricia Hogwood

term of office is four years (since 1994). Party system The main parties are SAP, M, the Fp, C and KD. Also significant are the Left Party (VP) (the former Communist Party, which changed its name in 1990), and the MP. The right-wing ND lost all of its twenty-five parliamentary seats in the 1994 election. The outcome of the 1998 election was a blow for the SAP, which received its worst share of the vote since 1928. It

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
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The knowledge base of ecological governance
Lennart J. Lundqvist

strategic environmental research To the Social-Democratic government returning to power after the 1994 elections, the strategic research foundations were an aberration in research policy. The foundations’ voluminous budgets, their independent status relative to the government, and their strategies for research and development had drawn heavy criticism. The Social Democrats were furthermore haunted by the repercussions of the acute economic crisis of 1992, and the continuously huge budget deficit. All this combined to promote an orchestrated attack on the strategic

in Sweden and ecological governance
Jon Birger Skjærseth
Tora Skodvin

peak corresponds with Shell’s process of reorganisation initiated in the mid-1990s. The Dutch green parties have had a relatively stable and high electoral basis since 1984. In 1989, the Green Left won six parliamentary seats out of 150 and doubled the number of seats of the constituent parties. The 1994 election left them with five seats. In 1998, political parties with green ties increased their share of seats in parliament, thus indicating that the decline in Dutch awareness has been modest. For example, the Green Left more than doubled its share of seats in

in Climate change and the oil industry
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Arthur B. Gunlicks

post, and he joined the Schröder government as Minister of Finance after the September 1998 federal election. Lafontaine was succeeded by Rudolf Klimmt, who became a popular figure soon after assuming office. But Lafontaine’s resignation in February 1999 from his ministerial and party posts in opposition to Schröder’s economic policy direction and the changed political climate in the country in 1999 had a very negative effect on the SPD’s standing in the Saarland.33 The CDU had gained votes in the 1994 elections over its 1990 results, but with 38.6 percent it still

in The Länder and German federalism