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Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

from the 2008 financial crisis, for example, has been the weakest and most prolonged on record ( Streeck, 2017 ). Reflecting the realities of the downturn, the new freedom to consume has, to a remarkable degree, been unequally distributed ( OECD, 2008 ; Oxfam, 2016 ). Precarity is a by-product of the long downturn. It emerges at that historic moment when the economy becomes a site of permanent emergency ( Streeck, 2011 ). A human surplus coexists with the ‘jobless’ growth resulting from the systemic urge to deepen automation at a time of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Crisis of Value
Author: Oonagh McDonald

This book explains the fundamental causes of the bank's failure, including the inadequacy of the regulatory and supervisory framework. For some, it was the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act that was the overriding cause, not just of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, but of the financial crisis as a whole. The book argues that the cause is partly to be found both in weak and ineffective regulation and also in a programme of regulation and supervision that was simply not fit for the purpose. Lehman Brothers' long history began with three brothers, immigrants from Germany, who sold selling groceries and dry goods to local cotton farmers. Dick Fuld, the chairman and CEO, and his senior management, ignored the increased risks, choosing to rely on over-valuations of the firm's assets. The book examines the regulation of the Big Five investment banks in the context of the changes which took place in the structure of banking after the repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act. It describes the introduction of the European Union's Consolidated Supervision Directive in 2004. The book examines the whole issue of valuing Lehman's assets and details the regulations covering appraisals and valuations of real estate, applicable at the time and to consider Lehman's approach in the light of these regulations. It argues that that the valuation of Lehman's real estate assets was problematic to say the least, as the regulators did not require the investment banks to adopt a recognized methodology of valuation, and that Lehman's own methods were flawed.

Open Access (free)
A Party of the 99% and the Power of Debt
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

publicly run banking system can provide for this debt-free, with no premiums required. In other words, everyone is covered by virtue of being a member of the political community. Seventh, a Party of the 99% should fund retirement at a democratically agreed-upon age. Presently, because of the economic insecurity wrought by the 2008 financial crisis and the defunding of pension plans by governments and municipalities bankrupted by debt, retirement is out of reach for many. Consequently, the elderly are forced to continue working longer (see Table 5.1). While many may be

in Debt as Power
Open Access (free)
Brigitte Nerlich, Sarah Hartley, Sujatha Raman and Alexander Thomas T. Smith

interlinked. In politics and economics, one can mention the 2008 financial crisis, threats posed by terrorism, rising tensions around the place of religion in science and society, the ascent of political populism, and, more recently, debates about the United Kingdom leaving the European Union – an exit (dubbed ‘Brexit’) that will have profound consequences for society, science and different forms of expertise. In the United States, a new presidency challenges established relations between science and politics, as well as between these domains, journalism and the public. In

in Science and the politics of openness
John Narayan

constrained by the interests of the major economic powers and the hegemony of neo-liberalism amongst political and economic elites (Hirst et al. 2009: 3; Weiss 2009). This viewpoint has gained even more credence in the light of the 2008 financial crisis and the onset of the Great Recession, where the power of the state to intervene in global markets and reform the international order has been shown to outrank international institutions and forums such as the UN, the IMF and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (Rodrik 2012). This would seemingly make nation state

in John Dewey
Open Access (free)
Jenny Edkins

tower and the lack of official response. His case is reminiscent of the prosecution of Abacus Bank in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis: a small Chinatown neighbourhood bank in New York City that was the only commercial bank brought to trial for mortgage fraud after the financial crisis.76 In that case, the bank was acquitted, and the prosecution criticised for having picked on someone who was, in the title of a documentary about the case, ‘small enough to jail’.77 In the case of the Grenfell inquiry, the justice that relatives, survivors and residents seek

in Change and the politics of certainty
Russia as ‘a Europe apart’
Andrew Monaghan

opposition to Western policies and Moscow’s increasingly obvious departure not just from shared values but from a shared view of international developments. As a result, the optimism has evolved more towards hope that Russia had been sufficiently weakened by developments such as the 2008 financial crisis that it would be obliged to drop its objections to Western policies and come over to the West and seek

in The new politics of Russia
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

is insanity, and he was killed. We are really in a gridlock like the Soviet Union was, and we can’t get out of it. The only possible end was indicated in the 2008 financial crisis –​that we would go broke and could not afford to continue with the rigid control of the world that we are seeking.68 108 In the further pursuit of media accountability, Stone later joined a long list of petitioners, including Noam Chomsky and Michael Moore, in May 2013 asking Margaret Sullivan, the public editor at the New York Times, to investigate what they saw as disparities in the

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

indicated in the 2008 financial crisis: that we would go broke, and could not afford to continue with the rigid control of the world that we are seeking. 251 Th e ci nem a of Ol iver   S to ne As it affected Natural Born Killers 252 Stone: In 1994 Natural Born Killers was an essay about these issues of unofficial censorship, about the replacement of values with media and its love of violence. At that time the O. J. Simpson trial was the staple of American news, and might well have made close to $10 billion for the networks. News used to be a non-​profit activity, but

in The cinema of Oliver Stone