James Baldwin’s American South
Jeff Fallis

James Baldwin has frequently been written about in terms of his relationship to geographical locations such as Harlem, Paris, St. Paul-de-Vence, Istanbul, and “the transatlantic,” but his longstanding connection to the American South, a region that served as a vexed and ambiguous spiritual battleground for him throughout his life and career, has been little discussed, even though Baldwin referred to himself as “in all but no technical legal fact, a Southerner.” This article argues that the South has been seriously underconsidered as a major factor in Baldwin’s psyche and career and that were it not for the challenge to witness the Southern Civil Rights movement made to Baldwin in the late 1950s, he might never have left Paris and become the writer and thinker into which he developed. It closely examines Baldwin’s fictional and nonfictional engagements with the American South during two distinct periods of his career, from his first visit to the region in 1957 through the watershed year of 1963, and from 1963 through the publication of Baldwin’s retrospective memoir No Name in the Street in 1972, and it charts Baldwin’s complex and often contradictory negotiations with the construction of identity in white and black Southerners and the South’s tendency to deny and censor its historical legacy of racial violence. A few years before his death, Baldwin wrote that “[t]he spirit of the South is the spirit of America,” and this essay investigates how the essential question he asked about the region—whether it’s a bellwether for America’s moral redemption or moral decline—remains a dangerous and open one.

James Baldwin Review
Susan Manning

seductions of literature: in the ‘Autobiographical Fragment’, which he composed in 1808 and revised in 1826, he described his continuing delight in Did Mark Twain bring down the temple? 9 the ballads of chivalry, the ‘Delilahs of [his] imagination’ guiltily enjoyed in secret beyond boyhood.4 In Life on the Mississippi, published a little over sixty years after Ivanhoe in 1883, Mark Twain delivered an indictment of sorcery on Scott himself, via the literary seduction his novels had wrought on the imagination of the American South: Then comes Sir Walter Scott with his

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Open Access (free)
Archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79
James E. Snead

while visiting Washington: his report described the meeting as focused on shared collecting opportunities, as well as potential ‘exchanges’ that would ‘make a very handsome nucleus for a museum for the Academy’ (New Orleans Academy of Sciences, 1854: 62). There was, however, inherent tension in the relationship between the Smithsonian and others in the antiquarian networks. As local institutions and scholarly ‘circles’ matured throughout the American south and midwest, tension between national sanction and local achievement became more common. Collectors or agents

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Judie Newman

churchyard first (Gloomy, p. 98). In 1828, MacLeod found that the Strathnaver church had actually been demolished and its timbers used to build an inn at Altnaharra. Just as in the American South, the established church supported the landowners, either physically (the Reverend Beatson is described as pursuing escaping emigrants ‘like a gamekeeper’: Gloomy, p. 64) or by inculcating habits of Christian submission, arguing that their sufferings were all the result of their sins. In the clearance at Culrain in 1820, where the militia fled before a large crowd of women, the

in Special relationships
Sabine Doering-Manteuffel and Stephan Bachter

ethnic groups. Thus the Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses was incorporated into the Afro-American population’s Hoodoo beliefs. During the mid-1920s, Newbell Niles Puckett reported that the sale of the book was ‘“enormous” and its use widespread among Negroes in the American South’.5 7 Copies of the Moses grimoire also reached the islands of the West Indies. In Jamaica, a reggae group even recorded a song entitled ‘Six and Seven Books of Moses’. Hohmann’s The Long-Lost Friend also spread amongst various populations in America, ‘to the Negro, the Cajun in Louisiana, the

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Jane Eyre in Elizabeth Stoddard’s New England
Anne-Marie Ford

are also explored by Sue Zlosnik and Avril Horner in their essay on the work of Djuna Barnes and Evelyn Waugh (Chapter 11). In adapting the Gothic mode, Brontë not only focuses on the sexual nature of women and male oppression, but also on class categories, reflecting a deeply embedded nineteenth-century preoccupation, one that was a focus for Gothic writers, not least Hawthorne. Stoddard employs elements of the Gothic to render the sexually powerful and dominant male, resonant of the slave owners of the American South, as well as current debates regarding women

in Special relationships
Sarah Orne Jewett, The Tory Lover, and Walter Scott, Waverley
Alison Easton

Humphrey, Walter Scott, ‘Waverley’. See Kammer, Season of Youth, p. 63. Dekker, American Historical Romance, pp. 103–4, notes how Scott was attractive to a sectionalised American South. For other aspects of this, see Susan Manning, ‘Scott and Hawthorne: The Making of a National Literary Tradition’, in Alexander and Hewitt (eds), Scott and His Influence, pp. 421–31; and June Howard, ‘Unraveling Regions, Unsettling Periods: Sarah Orne Jewett and American Literary History’, American Literature, 68 (1996), 365–84. Marjorie Pryse, ‘Sex, Class, and “Category Crisis”: Reading

in Special relationships
Sol Plaatje and W.E.B.Du Bois
Laura Chrisman

(London: Angela Royal Publishing, 1997); Caryl Phillips, The Atlantic Sound (New York: Knopf, 2000); Marcus Wood, Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America 1780–1865 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000). chapter5 21/12/04 106 11:16 am Page 106 Transnationalism and race 20 See for instance James T. Campbell, Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Stephen D. Gish, Alfred B. Xuma: African, American, South African (New

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Civil rites of passage
Sharon Monteith

the world in the 1950s and 1960s, and it is being replayed as a cinematic event. The interrelationship of popular memory and cinematic representations finds a telling case study in the civil rights era in the American South. This chapter assesses what films made after the civil rights era of the 1950s and 1960s express about the failure of the Movement to sustain and be sustained in its challenges to

in Memory and popular film