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Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

citizenry of photography. From June 1918 to April 1919, the American photographer Lewis Wickes Hine made photographs of refugees and other European civilians affected by World War I while working overseas for the American Red Cross (ARC). Refugees emerged as a new humanitarian subject in direct result of the changing global order that came with World War I. Hine’s photographs and the ARC’s use of them, both shaped and restricted public imagination with regard to refugees, and international spectators’ responses to them. Here, I explore Hine’s refugee photographs and more

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

evolved into important narrative agents of the movement. Taking a particular interest in the entanglements between visual display and narrative, the following sections argue that Red Cross museums have shaped, changed, and formulated their own humanitarian narratives throughout the twentieth century. The first section starts out by first describing the origins of the institution of Red Cross museums, with a particular focus on the museum of the American Red Cross in Washington

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Valérie Gorin and Sönke Kunkel

’s reportage of the visually displaced in Europe between June 1918 and April 1919, published in the mass-circulated and popular Red Cross Magazine of the American Red Cross. Valérie Gorin’s analysis dives into the early use of humanitarian cinema in the 1920s, during the pivotal period of 1919–23 and the first international humanitarian response in Europe, to show how cinema participated as a set of communication practices convergent with transnational activism and advocacy. Sönke Kunkel

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

successfully applied all over the world. For example, the American Red Cross established fire-detection sensors in informal settlements in Nairobi ( American Red Cross, 2016 ) and Digital Democracy (2014) partnered with the Indigenous Wapichana people of Guyana to build and operate drones to monitor environmental degradation. UNICEF designed and delivered a crisis-response trauma programme to train Rwandese ‘trauma advisors’, ‘who in turn trained 6193

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

Germany, Estonia and Greece, the rescue of Russian refugees in Constantinople, the feeding operations and educational activities for children in Hungary, and other relief activities during war and peace. Unlike the ICRC, the American Red Cross had a tremendous production of a hundred films through its Bureau of Pictures (the first film unit to open in 1917 until 1922), recording Red Cross nurses attending to war wounded, the improvement of hygiene and health practices, as well as the assistance provided to civilians from France to the Balkans and North Africa ( Horne

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Christine E. Hallett

war experiences. British nurse writer Kate Luard, a veteran of the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) began the First World War as a sister with the QAIMNS Reserve and rose to the position of Head Sister to one of the most significant British advanced casualty clearing stations. American Alice Fitzgerald, a prominent member of the nursing profession in the USA, joined the QAIMNS Reserve as a sister in 1916, but left to take up a senior role with the American Red Cross following the USA’s entry into the war. The quintessential British nurse: Kate Luard Katherine

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

rewarded by her appointment as chief nurse of the American Red Cross in France. Later that year, she was transferred to the directorship of the Nursing Services for the American Expeditionary Force.31 Her ability as a diplomat was a significant element of her impressive battery of skills. After the war, she was appointed Dean of the Army School of Nursing, a position she held until the school’s closure in 1931, when she continued as superintendent of the Army Nurse Corps. In 1920, US Congress awarded army nurses relative rank, and Stimson was given the title of major

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

the one Millard joined worked under the auspices of the American Red Cross. Their services were welcomed by the Belgian and French military medical services. Millard appears to have been unusual in having no nursing or first-aid training at all.11 Most volunteer nurses equipped themselves with a range of basic skills and techniques – usually taught by trained nurses hired by the Red Cross. In Britain, where a war had long been anticipated, such training sessions were organised by VADs, and the preparation of volunteer nurses had attained a degree of sophistication

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Michael Lawrence and Rachel Tavernor

such as Jonathan Benthall and Kevin Rozario suggest that global humanitarianism acquired its distinctive contemporary ethos and form in the West with the founding of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863, and subsequently with the work of the American Red Cross during the First World War. 8 However, humanitarianism underwent a significant shift in the aftermath of the Second World War. Craig Calhoun, for example, claims the civilian

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Open Access (free)
La colonie Française
Nicholas Atkin

a Mr Griggs of the American Red Cross in London.242 In this, she recounted her 279 days in jail and the ‘cruel treatment’ she had suffered. She was furious that the British Red Cross had taken so long to vouch for her, despite the fact Anthony Eden’s sister had been a member of her motor corps and that de Gaulle’s own nurses had come to see her. ‘A victim of wilful cruelty’, she had been sent third class to Liverpool, accompanied by detectives, and then dumped on a cargo vessel for the 20-days’ voyage to Lisbon, although ‘anything was better than Holloway

in The forgotten French