Open Access (free)
Power in cross-border Cooperation

The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.

Elana Wilson Rowe

Council. We first look at how debates around the ‘science–​policy interface’ manifest themselves more generally. When is discussion of scientific knowledge (or the presence/​autonomy of scientists) given weight at the high-​political level? Turning to indigenous diplomacy, we analyse and categorise Permanent Participants’ diplomatic interventions in the Arctic Council (which is, of course, just one stage upon which the multifaceted politics of indigenous sovereignty is enacted). In the concluding section, I discuss a concept borrowed from science and technology studies

in Arctic governance
Elana Wilson Rowe

4 Establishing and navigating the rules of the road in Arctic diplomacy During its 2003–​2005 chairmanship of the Arctic Council, Russia –​the ‘largest’ Arctic state  –​suggested that Arctic cooperation should focus more on the city level. The idea never really garnered any support. This is understandable, on the one hand, in that the idea suited poorly the ‘many Arctics’ represented by the other countries, most of which include settlements and towns, but very few cities compared to the relatively urbanised Russian Arctic (Orttung, 2017). The urban Arctic also

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Theorising Arctic hierarchies
Elana Wilson Rowe

(Keskitalo, 2004). Canada and the ICC drove forward the AEPS successor  –​the Arctic Council (English, 2013). At the same time, as we shall see below, it is the regional ‘great powers’  –​the Soviet Union and the United States  –​that have been instrumental in clearing the political space for such initiatives. For example, Gorbachev’s Murmansk speech was critical to reframing the Arctic as a location where former Cold War foes and all the countries in between them could meet to address shared environmental challenges (Åtland, 2008). In this chapter, I  suggest that

in Arctic governance
Elana Wilson Rowe

Chapter  1, these kinds of ecosystemic connections serve to unsettle political boundaries and tie into the logic presented by several of the non-​Arctic states in their applications for observer status at the Arctic Council, as we will see below. In this illustrative map, political boundaries are completely absent. Figure 5, by contrast, with its satellite view centred on the Arctic, highlights political boundaries and presents a view that brings to the forefront Arctic states (see Steinberg et al., 2015: 29 for a close analysis of a previous version of this map

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Elana Wilson Rowe

juxtaposition to the same day’s international news. Headlines were of angry chaos in the UN Security Council over Syria and the Obama Administration’s decision formally to accuse the Russian Government of stealing and disclosing emails from the Democratic National Committee in an attempt to influence the 2016 presidential elections. That the Arctic Council has been largely buffered from an all-​time post-​Cold War low point in Russian–​American relations is indeed a remarkable and important achievement. That it has been possible to keep, by and large, broader conflicts out of

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
A power perspective on Arctic governance
Elana Wilson Rowe

  2 explores how defining/​representing the Arctic region matters for securing preferred outcomes. The examples used to illustrate framing include a deeper exploration of how ‘outside’ geopolitical strife is handled in circumpolar cooperation, the place of non-​Arctic states in the Arctic Council and the 2013 debate over new permanent observer applications, and the longstanding and ongoing balancing act between conservation and economic development in the region. Chapter 3 examines how circumpolar cooperation is marked by regional hierarchies and draws attention to

in Arctic governance
New stories on rafted ice
Elana Wilson Rowe

was no longer permitted. Reactivating these kinship and language ties across a geopolitically significant border was an important catalyst in the active Arctic region-​ building of the immediate post-​Cold War era. In John English’s wonderful account of the history of the Arctic Council, he describes the first North American Inuit delegation to travel across the ‘Ice Curtain’ of 21 the Bering 22 Arctic governance Figure 2  Big and Little Diomede Islands and the Alaskan and Chukotka coasts. Sea to Chukotka in the waning days of the Soviet Union in 1988. The

in Arctic governance
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

: (1) Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP); (2) Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME); (3) Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF); and (4) Emergency Preparedness, Prevention and Response (EPPR) programme. These programmes reported to the Ministers of the Environment of the Arctic countries, who, in turn, identified priority areas for further action. Four ministerial conferences were held under the AEPS framework between 1991 and Introduction 13 1997. The AEPS programmes have now been subsumed under the Arctic Council, a forum

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

regional or bilateral level – the AEPS/Arctic Council, BEAR and bilateral agreements with Finland and Norway – are of a programmatic and non-binding character, partly designed to facilitate implementation of the LRTAP commitments. Implementation performance and target compliance As indicated in the section on the nature of the problem above, there are factors both facilitating and hampering implementation of Russia’s LRTAP commitments. However, in reviewing implementation performance and target compliance, all factors contributing to the malignity of the problem are

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia