Author: Jacopo Pili

Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.

Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

faith, a passion. It is not necessary for it to be a reality. It is a reality in the sense that it is a stimulus, is hope, is faith, is courage. Our myth is the nation, our myth is the greatness of the nation! And to this myth, this greatness, which we want to translate into a total reality, we subordinate everything else. (Benito Mussolini, The Naples Speech , 24th October 1922

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Jacopo Pili

two traditional allies into enemies have been under historical scrutiny for several years. There is a large body of work covering the evolution of the relationship between the two powers during the 1920s and the 1930s.1 However, there is no comprehensive study documenting the image of Britain in Italy during this two-decades-long period. There is still no consensus among historians about the motives of Benito Mussolini – the Duce – in his tumultuous relationship with Britain. One school, which counted among its members the illustrious historian of Fascism, Renzo De

in Anglophobia in Fascist Italy
Open Access (free)
Warfare, politics and religion after the Habsburg Empire in the Julian March, 1930s– 1970s
Gaetano Dato

gli scheletri delle vittime’, Il Piccolo, 15 February 1974 Websites Causa General, www.causageneral.org (accessed 15 October 2014) Discorsi di Benito Mussolini, http://​isites.harvard.edu/​fs/​docs/​icb.topic1008030. files/​DifesaDellaRazza_​Trieste.pdf (accessed 15 October 2014)

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

forms of government are described as ‘democratic’. For example, Adolf Hitler called the Third Reich ‘The German democracy, which is the true democracy’. Benito Mussolini described Italian Fascism as ‘the purest form of democracy’. Communist regimes call themselves ‘people’s democracies’. Most dictatorships in the developing world claim to be ‘democratic’. Finally, our own political system is called a

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Jacopo Pili

only in 1947, after the Second World War and the end of Fascism. All this was still far in the future in 1922. Sarfatti was a writer, art critic and overall renowned intellectual. She was also the lover of renegade Socialist and current leader of the Fascist party, Benito Mussolini. The article analysed the famous British writer as one universal archetype. Rather than being simply a nationalist or imperialist writer, Sarfatti wrote, Kipling was ‘the singer of the will of domination and expansion not just of Britannismo, [Britishness] but of the West in general.’ At

in Anglophobia in Fascist Italy