An intellectual history
Author: Johan Östling

In the twenty-first century, intense debates concerning the university have flared up in Germany. An underlying factor is the general feeling that the country's once so excellent universities have been irredeemably left behind. This book anchors the current debate about the university in the past by exploring the history and varying meanings of the tradition of Wilhelm von Humboldt. It first provides a history of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the history and content of the Humboldtian tradition. Humboldt was involved in Greek antiquity, theory of education, Prussian educational system, and comparative linguistics. If, in spite of this versatility, a comprehensive idea, his Lebensthema, is to be found, it would have to be human beings and their Education. The book discusses the contributions of Adolf von Harnack and Eduard Spranger who emphasised Humboldt as a prominent figure in German university history. It focuses on three of the most influential figures in the post-war debate on the university: philosopher Karl Jaspers, historian Gerhard Ritter, and Germanic philologist Werner Richter. The 150th anniversary celebrations of the university in 1960 saw the eastern Berlin academia claiming to be the bearers of the true Humboldtian spirit and the west demonstrating itself as taking over Humboldt's original idea. The years following 2000 saw most European countries realising university reforms without any notable opposition, but in Germany the Bologna process gave rise to heated discussions in the public sphere.

Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

, the German mood of crisis, which had taken shape during the final stages of the previous century, was further reinforced.14 At the centre of twenty-first-century German university debates, however, was the Bologna process. At a meeting in 1999 in the historic north Italian university town, ministers of education from twenty-nine countries agreed to create a uniform university landscape for Europe. The overarching goals were to promote mobility, employability, and the general competitiveness of the continent. During Critical Inquiry, 38:3 (2012); and Transformations

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

Unbildung: Die Irrtümer der Wissensgesellschaft (Vienna, 2006), Konrad Paul Liessmann expressly attempts to update Theodor W. Adorno’s theses from ‘Theorie der Halbbildung’ (1959) and apply them to the Bologna process. See Chapter 6. 18 Humboldt and the modern German university who interpreted the Humboldtian tradition and placing them in their respective contexts. My point of departure is that in each historical period, there was a specific group of people who shaped the view of the cardinal academic issues. They were not in sole control of the debate, but they did

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

about the basic academic issues recurred with full force, during the Bologna process of the early twenty-first century, the competitiveness of the German university was a central topic.

in Humboldt and the modern German university