Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Evison, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura, Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Exhumation may be defined as the legally sanctioned excavation and recovery of the remains of lawfully buried or – occasionally – cremated individuals, as distinct from forensic excavations of clandestinely buried remains conducted as part of a criminal investigation and from unlawful disinterment of human remains, commonly referred to as bodysnatching. The aim of this article is to review the role of exhumation – so defined – in the activities of CEMEL, the Medico-Legal Centre of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, in international, regional and local collaborations. Exhumations form part of routine forensic anthropology casework; scientific research in physical and forensic anthropology; and forensic casework conducted in collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Police; and are carried out as part of humanitarian investigations into deaths associated with the civil–military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. This article aims to offer a non-technical summary – with reference to international comparative information – of the role of exhumation in investigative and scientific work and to discuss developments in their historical and political context.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

7 Yellow fever vaccine in Brazil: fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation Jaime Benchimol Introduction In the wake of the Pasteurian revolution, vaccines and serums were developed for yellow fever in many countries. Yellow fever was one of the key public health challenges in Brazil for at least a century, from the 1850s to the 1950s. During this period, the most notable

in The politics of vaccination
Joachim Neander

During the Second World War and its aftermath, the legend was spread that the Germans turned the bodies of Holocaust victims into soap stamped with the initials RIF, falsely interpreted as made from pure Jewish fat. In the years following liberation, RIF soap was solemnly buried in cemeteries all over the world and came to symbolise the six million killed in the Shoah, publicly showing the determination of Jewry to never forget the victims. This article will examine the funerals that started in Bulgaria and then attracted several thousand mourners in Brazil and Romania, attended by prominent public personalities and receiving widespread media coverage at home and abroad. In 1990 Yad Vashem laid the Jewish soap legend to rest, and today tombstones over soap graves are falling into decay with new ones avoiding the word soap. RIF soap, however, is alive in the virtual world of the Internet and remains fiercely disputed between believers and deniers.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Sergio Britto Garcia, Martin Evison, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Iara Xavier Pereira, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Truth commissions are widely recognised tools used in negotiation following political repression. Their work may be underpinned by formal scientific investigation of human remains. This paper presents an analysis of the role of forensic investigations in the transition to democracy following the Brazilian military governments of 1964–85. It considers practices during the dictatorship and in the period following, making reference to analyses of truth commission work in jurisdictions other than Brazil, including those in which the investigation of clandestine burials has taken place. Attempts to conceal the fate of victims during the dictatorship, and the attempts of democratic governments to investigate them are described. Despite various initiatives since the end of the military government, many victims remain unidentified. In Brazil, as elsewhere, forensic investigations are susceptible to political and social influences, leading to a situation in which relatives struggle to obtain meaningful restitution and have little trust in the transitional justice process.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Crystal Tremblay and Sarah Amyot

25 Participatory sustainable waste ­management project in Brazil Crystal Tremblay and Sarah Amyot Context People who live off materials recovered from the waste stream exist in every corner of the world. However, these recyclers are among the most exploited and socially and economically excluded people. Recyclers face enormous stigmatization, discrimination and marginalization. This project was established to focus on participatory waste management as an opportunity to generate income and to improve the quality of life of informal recyclers (called catadores in

in Knowledge, democracy and action
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2016 2 2 1 1 3 3 22 22 10.7227/HRV.2.1.2 Symbolically burying the six million: post-war soap burial in Romania, Bulgaria and Brazil Neander Joachim April 2016 2 2 1 1 23 23 40 40 10.7227/HRV.2.1.3 Microbial ecogenomics and forensic archaeology: new methods for investigating clandestine gravesites Ralebitso-Senior T.K. Thompson T

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long story of the unidentified bodies found on the coastline of Uruguay during the Condor Plan Figueredo Magdalena Larrobla Fabiana October 2017 3 3 2 2 56 56 73 73 10.7227/HRV.3.2.5 Forensic investigation, truth and trust in the context of transitional justice in Brazil Guimarães Marco Aurelio Arrabaça Francisco

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Jewish cemetery at the Hôtel-Dieu in Lyon, France Gerstenkorn Jacques April 2017 3 3 1 1 22 22 36 36 10.7227/HRV.3.1.3 Procedural and political aspects of forensic exhumation in Brazil Guimarães Marco Aurelio Francisco Raffaela Arrabaça Evison Martin Iwamura

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01 2019 1 1 1 1 46 46 48 48 6 10.7227/JHA.006 Humanitarian Communication in a Post-Truth World Bunce Mel melanie.bunce.1@city.ac.uk 01 01 2019 1 1 1 1 49 49 55 55 7 10.7227/JHA.007 Interview A World without a Project An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister Fiori Juliano j.fiori@savethechildren.org.uk 01 01 2019 1 1 1 1 56 56 61 61 8 10.7227/JHA.008 Rescue and Resistance in the Med An Interview with Caroline Abu Sa’Da, General Director of

Luiz Eduardo Soares

Preface by Michael Keith The following chapter is written by Luiz Eduardo Soares, an academic notable for a professional biography that has moved back and forth between the ivory tower and city government. Soares has served as Professor of Anthropology at the State University of Rio de Janeiro and was the National Secretary of Public Security under the mandate of Lula’s presidency in Brazil. Soares’s chapter starts with the appalling statistic that between 1980 and 2010 over one million Brazilians were murdered. It is in the face of such data that

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city