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The international growth and influence of bioethics has led some to identify it as a decisive shift in the location and exercise of 'biopower'. This book provides an in-depth study of how philosophers, lawyers and other 'outsiders' came to play a major role in discussing and helping to regulate issues that used to be left to doctors and scientists. It discusses how club regulation stemmed not only from the professionalising tactics of doctors and scientists, but was compounded by the 'hands-off' approach of politicians and professionals in fields such as law, philosophy and theology. The book outlines how theologians such as Ian Ramsey argued that 'transdisciplinary groups' were needed to meet the challenges posed by secular and increasingly pluralistic societies. It also examines their links with influential figures in the early history of American bioethics. The book centres on the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy, who was the most high-profile advocate of the approach he explicitly termed 'bioethics'. It shows how Mary Warnock echoed governmental calls for external oversight. Many clinicians and researchers supported her calls for a 'monitoring body' to scrutinise in vitro fertilisation and embryo research. The growth of bioethics in British universities occurred in the 1980s and 1990s with the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics. The book details how some senior doctors and bioethicists led calls for a politically-funded national bioethics committee during the 1980s. It details how recent debates on assisted dying highlight the authority and influence of British bioethicists.

chap 1 23/9/03 1:14 pm Page 3 1 Uncertainty, economy and improvisation In 1973 the finances of most British universities lay at the mercy of politicians and were subject to capricious cuts in public spending. Their precarious situation was a consequence of the state-financed expansion of the previous decades. What taxpayers gave, their elected representatives could pare and trim when the economy wilted and crisis loomed. In the midst of high inflation both Conservative and Labour governments failed to compensate universities for increases in the cost of

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90
Open Access (free)

­interdisciplinary ‘meeting ground’. Chapter 5 examines the growth of bioethics in British universities during the 1980s and 1990s. I show how figures such as Kennedy claimed that ‘non-medical’ input in ethics teaching would benefit student doctors during the early 1980s. This stance ensured that senior doctors supported new interdisciplinary courses in medical ethics, which were predominantly aimed at student doctors and healthcare professionals. I also show how the emergence of dedicated centres for bioethics was consolidated by government cuts in university funding, which

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Enthusiasm and audit

status as such owes in part to his charisma, and so through a process of distortion to his enthusiastic origins. But that he can manage his mission owes to his readiness to mediate and manipulate knowledge, to operate according to the prescriptions of the bureaucratic mind. In so far, then, as this book about American literature, written from and referring to a British university setting, makes an argument back and forth across the Atlantic, what is at issue is the form of literary knowledge. What the American writers I have been discussing variously present is an

in Enthusiast!
The emergence of bioethics in British universities

5 ‘A service to the community as a whole’: the emergence of bioethics in British universities Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s, thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early 1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input, claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and would

in The making of British bioethics
War memorials, memory and imperial knowledge

.1 shows the distribution by sex and province. The IODE sought individuals who could be further trained in the ways of useful citizenship, and it considered that British universities could provide an education superior to that available in Canada. This is not to say that Canada was not proud of its own universities. Indeed, during the 1928 Schoolgirl Tour, McGill, Queen’s and Toronto Universities had been

in Female imperialism and national identity

exactly was knowledge expected to move from the laboratory and spur development? This chapter will examine the relationship between scientific investigation and colonial development that was embodied in the new arrangements for colonial research that were created in fields such as sugar chemistry during the first half of the 1940s. The late colonial period saw an unprecedented expansion in scientific research across the Colonial Empire and in British universities, funded through the Research Fund of the 1940 CDW Act and its successors. The new

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
Achievement and self-doubt

1975 David Walker of The Times Higher Educational Supplement attempted to do what the UGC denied doing and establish a ranking order for English (not British) universities. He noted that certain institutions ‘come out near the top of every scale that is used’. His criteria included the proportion of students accommodated in University residences; the strength of the A-level results required to qualify for entry; the quality of engineering research and the standard of medical teaching; the number of library books per head of the student and academic population; and

in A history of the University of Manchester 1973–90

respect to the administration of the colony in which they were based. This included arrangements that purposively limited the influence that the Agricultural, Medical or Veterinary Departments had over the research agenda of these new laboratories, on the grounds that the technical personnel of these departments were not well qualified in research. It is important to note, that in terms of the work that was done in these laboratories, and also some British universities, there was often a lot of short-term, practical problem solving. Elite British scientists did not

in Science at the end of empire

substantial transformation of the system. It would be at least another decade before a real discussion of reforms got off the ground.133 This, however, does not amount to saying that there was an absence of exchanges of opinion about the nature and fundamental mission of the university. On the contrary, the Germans seem to have been far from alone in discussing these issues in the wake of the war. It is true that Robert D. Anderson in his work on the history of British universities pointed out that neither of the world wars was a real watershed: between the turn of the

in Humboldt and the modern German university