Racism, immigration and the state
Steve Loyal

4 Welcome to the Celtic Tiger: racism, immigration and the state STEVE LOYAL The ‘Celtic Tiger’ has come to provide a convenient shorthand for Ireland’s prosperous and rapidly growing economy. Like all metaphors, it occludes as much as it includes; as a way of representing, it is just as much a way of misrepresenting. The implication of a prosperity in which ‘a rising tide lifts all boats’ masks the growth of poverty and inequality and generalises what is, in fact, only a restricted experience of newly found wealth, within a broader context of class and gender

in The end of Irish history?
A critical reassessment
Denis O’Hearn

2 Macroeconomic policy in the Celtic Tiger: a critical reassessment DENIS O’HEARN The miraculous turnaround in the fortunes of the southern Irish economy during the 1990s fooled most experts. The upturn began in the early 1990s, following one of the worst economic periods in the history of the Irish state. The economy then ‘took off’ in 1994 for seven years of sustained high growth that earned the Irish Republic the popular name of the ‘Celtic Tiger’. The Celtic Tiger emerged from a historic expansion in the United States that was centred on the information

in The end of Irish history?
Sinéad Kennedy

5 Irish women and the Celtic Tiger economy SINÉAD KENNEDY The term ‘Celtic Tiger’ has connotations that extend well beyond the realm of the purely economic. It has, for instance, become a metaphor for a new national consensus that constantly reminds us how ‘we have never had it so good’. This chapter takes issue with this consensus and argues instead that, while the recent boom in the Irish Republic has produced enormous wealth for a small minority, the majority of Irish people have benefited little from this apparent economic miracle. In fact, there has been a

in The end of Irish history?
Critical reflections on the Celtic Tiger

Sexual images and innuendo have become commonplace in contemporary advertising; they often fail to register in any meaningful way with the audience. This book examines the essentially racist stereotypes through which Irish people have conventionally been regarded have been increasingly challenged and even displaced perhaps by a sequence of rather more complimentary perspectives. The various developments that are signified within the figure of the Celtic Tiger might be considered to have radically altered the field of political possibility in Ireland. The enormous cuts in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment. The Celtic Tiger shows that one can use the rhetoric about 'social solidarity' while actually implementing policies which increase class polarisation. The book discusses the current hegemonic construction of Ireland as an open, cosmopolitan, multicultural, tourist-friendly society. The two central pieces of legislation which currently shape Irish immigration policy are the 1996 Refugee Act and the Immigration Bill of 1999. The book offers a critical examination of the realities of the Celtic Tiger for Irish women. Processes of nation state formation invariably invoke homogeneous narratives of ethnicity and national identity. To invoke a collective subject of contemporary Ireland rhetorically is to make such a strategic utopian political assumption. For the last few hundred years, the Gaeltacht has exemplified the crisis of Irish modernity. Culture becomes capital, and vice versa, while political action increasingly consists of the struggle to maintain democratic autonomy in the face of global market forces.

Class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic
Kieran Allen

3 Neither Boston nor Berlin: class polarisation and neo-liberalism in the Irish Republic KIERAN ALLEN The Celtic Tiger is dead. Between 1994 and 2000, real gross domestic product (GDP) in the Republic of Ireland grew at an annual average rate of nine per cent, taking per capita income from sixty-seven to eightysix per cent of the European Union (EU) average by 1999.1 In terms of conventional economics, this would seem to constitute a miracle. Growth rates for most industrial nations were sluggish in the 1990s and even the boom in the United States did not match

in The end of Irish history?
G. Honor Fagan

’ of Silicon Valley. O’Hearn argues, for example, that US computer and pharmaceutical companies have set the tone for the ‘Celtic Tiger’, which has transformed the economic, social and cultural make-up of the country.12 Whether the economic growth of the ‘Celtic Tiger’ is perceived to have set the scene for the cultural transformation of Ireland, or conversely whether cultural development is thought to have set the scene for economic growth, we have here an argument that Ireland can be historically and economically placed as ‘American’. Recent Irish political and

in The end of Irish history?
Community, language and culture under the Celtic Tiger
Steve Coleman

10 The centralised government of liquidity: community, language and culture under the Celtic Tiger STEVE COLEMAN The privatisation of Telecom Éireann in June 1999 came at the highwater mark of Ireland’s ‘Celtic Tiger’ phase. About 600,000 Irish citizens bought shares in the state-owned company, which promptly changed its name to Eircom. For most buyers, it was their first experience of stock ownership.1 In the television advertisement campaign for the share offer, we saw singers in locations all over Ireland sing verses from the traditional Irishlanguage song

in The end of Irish history?
Martine Pelletier

9780719075636_4_006.qxd 16/2/09 9:25 AM Page 98 6 ‘New articulations of Irishness and otherness’1 on the contemporary Irish stage Martine Pelletier Though the choice of 1990 as a watershed year demarcating ‘old’ Ireland from ‘new’, modern, Ireland may be a convenient simplification that ignores or plays down a slow, complex, ongoing process, it is nonetheless true to say that in recent years Ireland has undergone something of a revolution. Economic success, the so-called ‘Celtic Tiger’ phenomenon, and its attendant socio-political consequences, has given

in Irish literature since 1990
An introduction to the book
Colin Coulter

Irish Republic and that of the ‘tiger’ economies of south-east Asia.4 The resemblance was sufficiently close, Gardiner suggested, to justify the description of the twenty-six counties as the ‘Celtic Tiger’. Rarely can a metaphor spun by a financial analyst have had such a dramatic impact upon popular discourse. In the years since it was eih ch-1.P65 3 26/3/03, 15:05 4 Coulter invented, the term ‘Celtic Tiger’ has become a common feature of everyday speech in the Irish Republic. Indeed, the phrase has been issued with such regularity that it has become a bane for

in The end of Irish history?
The return of the repressed in Roddy Doyle’s Paula Spencer
Jennifer M. Jeffers

culture that would follow in its wake would present a new set of issues for Ireland: While the so-called Celtic Tiger roars on, another more subtle change is taking place in the Republic and will be an issue of contention in the coming decades. With the wealth of successful economic globalization comes the attraction to Ireland by refugees and asylum-seekers, as well as a migrant work force. An increase in diversity, a multiracial, multiethnic, and multicultural population looms in Ireland’s future. The conservative reaction in England to a multiracial and multiethnic

in Irish literature since 1990