Jaewoo Choo

2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 105 6 The geopolitics of Central Asian energy Jaewoo Choo This chapter assesses the rising geostrategic and geoeconomic importance of Central Asian oil and natural gas for China and the United States – the most transparent source of Sino-American conflict in this region. The initial rationale for Chinese engagement in Central Asia, despite the emergence of China as a net oil-importing nation in 1993, was not driven by the search for an alternative and secure source of oil and natural gas.1 Rather, Chinese policy reflected a

in Limiting institutions?
Stuart Horsman

2504Chap5 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 86 5 Transboundary water management and security in Central Asia1 Stuart Horsman Central Asia is subject to a number of major environmental concerns, including the desiccation of the Aral Sea, the depletion and degradation of river and irrigation waters, and the consequences of Soviet and Chinese nuclear weapons testing at Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor, respectively. Riverine water, particularly when linked with irrigated land, is perhaps the only one of these environmental issues that demonstrates a ‘probable linkage between

in Limiting institutions?
Coping with intertwined conflicts
Author: Amikam Nachmani

Turkey's involvement in the Gulf War in 1991 paved the way for the country's acceptance into the European Union. This book traces that process, and in the first part looks at Turkey's foreign policy in the 1990s, considering the ability of the country to withstand the repercussions of the fall of communism. It focuses on Turkey's achievement in halting and minimising the effects of the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the skilful way in which Turkey avoided becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East; and the development of a continued policy of closer integration into the European and western worlds. Internal politics are the focus of the second part of the book, addressing the curbing of the Kurdish revolt, the economic gains made and the strengthening of civil society. The book goes on to analyse the prospects for Turkey in the twenty-first century, in the light of the possible integration into Europe, which may leave the country's leadership free to deal effectively with domestic issues.

Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

which a resurgent Russia has stepped. These are structural shifts in the sense that even the most liberal government in the US would find it hard to throw its weight around when China is always available – in South East Asia, in Africa, in Central Asia – to provide financing and diplomatic support with few strings attached (and to threaten forms of retaliation when such inducements fail). The rise of Trump can even be explained as a reaction to a sense of gathering national decline, hence his campaign slogan: ‘Make America Great Again

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

to Anatolia from the prairies of Central Asia, the way shown to them by the Grey Wolf, the Bozkurt . 4 (This last symbol, though indicating that ancient Turkic peoples emanated in much older times than Turkey’s Islamic or Arab neighborhood, was later adopted by Turkey’s Pan-Turkists. The Bozkurt thus acts contrary to the idea of Turkish nationalism which centers on the Turkish State alone; see pp. 109 –110.) The Antatolian peasantry, of whom the Ottoman elite did not think very highly, was now, in the Turkish Republic, praised as the pure core of the Turkish

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

’s interests, though again, without ever quite pushing matters to the brink. Turkey, Russia, and the Central Asian and Caucasus Republics Centuries of tension and friction, interleaved with the occasional crisis, had taught Turkey to tread very gingerly where Russia was concerned. Ankara was well aware that the successful pursuit of its regional interests demanded, in the present, as much discretion and circumspection vis-à-vis Russia as it had in the past. This was particularly true in Central Asia and the Caucasus, where, as

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

communism, to stop the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, to avoid becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East, to prevent an eruption of yet another cycle in Cyprus and in the Aegean Sea, etc. Turkey managed also to develop close relations with its ethnically related Asian Turkic peoples, seemingly without becoming sidetracked from its declared hopes of becoming integrated into the European and Western worlds. Similarly

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Joshua B. Spero

because of its multilateral and cooperative focus on shared politico-military approaches, norms, standards and operating procedures developed over decades of multilateral cooperation. American strategic planners, mainly in the Pentagon, however, needed to ensure that PfP first survived its early tests. Such challenges included American initiatives to pursue long-term linkages and then enhanced relationships through NATO institutionally with the unstable states in the Caucasus and Central Asia – frequently seen by NATO’s European allies, except Turkey, as outside the

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

. Definitions of Turkey as the rising “Middle Eastern power,” “the Central Asian pivot,” the “multi-regional power,” or even as the emerging “regional super-power” as Time magazine had used (see the Help Wanted “Ad,” at the beginning of Chapter 1 ), are to be found in many publications. 1 We, too, we have used this terminology when we came to describe the country’s status, performances and prospects. However, a clear warning should be attached to these definitions. Turkey will not be the said power if it means clashes and confrontations and wars, be it with Russia

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Douglas Blum

instrument of state building.44 Thus, like the remaining Central Asian states, they joined the Economic Cooperation Organisation and Islamic Confederation Organisation soon after the fall of the Soviet Union.45 And yet Islam has also been tempered somewhat variously by Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. Martha Brill Olcott observes that Turkmenistan has a larger devout population and has therefore pursued closer political and economic ties with the Islamic states of the Middle East than has Kazakhstan, which, given its image of Russia as potentially hostile, is committed to

in Limiting institutions?