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John Toland and the crisis of Christian culture, 1696–1722
Author: Justin Champion

This book explores the life, thought and political commitments of the free-thinker John Toland (1670–1722). Studying both his private archive and published works, it illustrates how he moved in both subversive and elite political circles in England and abroad. The book explores the connections between Toland's republican political thought and his irreligious belief about Christian doctrine, the ecclesiastical establishment and divine revelation, arguing that far from being a marginal and insignificant figure, he counted queens, princes and government ministers as his friends and political associates. In particular, Toland's intimate relationship with the Electress Sophia of Hanover saw him act as a court philosopher, but also as a powerful publicist for the Hanoverian succession. The book argues that he shaped the republican tradition after the Glorious Revolution into a practical and politically viable programme, focused not on destroying the monarchy but on reforming public religion and the Church of England. It also examines how Toland used his social intimacy with a wide circle of men and women (ranging from Prince Eugene of Savoy to Robert Harley) to distribute his ideas in private. The book explores the connections between his erudition and print culture, arguing that his intellectual project was aimed at compromising the authority of Christian ‘knowledge’ as much as the political power of the Church. Overall, it illustrates how Toland's ideas and influence impacted upon English political life between the 1690s and the 1720s.

Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples
David Killingray

offering working men the Gospel and social improvement. 16 Christian doctrine underwrote Moody’s ideas of humanity and race. In a pamphlet addressed to young members of Christian Endeavour, he said: Christ came to help me to realise that in spite of all my failings I was worth dying for; as one of His followers, I must impact to

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Ralph Keen

important writings into a Corpus of Christian Doctrine. On his sixty-third birthday he prepared a preface which identified those texts as his theological last will and testament. He died two months later.21 His colleagues and students gave him a funeral equaling Luther’s in praises of his work and expressions of grief, and buried him opposite Luther in the Wittenberg Castle Church where, according to the legend for which Melanchthon is our only source, the Reformation began in October 1517.22 Melanchthon’s Life of Luther Their close collaboration over almost thirty years

in Luther’s lives
Trevor Burnard

disciplined.23 When enslaved people fought back against the violence that surrounded them, it highlighted less what they had done, but just how vital coercion was in securing any measure of slave obedience. Third, violence by slaves provoked sufficient outrage among abolitionists imbued  with Christian doctrines, in which the iconography of Christ’s martyrdom was ­central, that they easily equated suffering slaves with their own suffering ­saviour. It is important to note that this equation occurred before enslaved people – at least in the French, British, and Dutch

in A global history of early modern violence
Elisa Narin van Court

contexts for the composition of The Siege of Jerusalem we need to glance briefly at the ecclesiastical traditions behind this fourteenth-century production; traditions which are, I think, the essential contexts for understanding the varied response to Jews we find in the narrative. For it is the ambivalent nature of Christian doctrine about Jews that best testifies to and prepares us for the equally conflicted response we find in The Siege of Jerusalem and other literary productions.19 In the highly influential Pauline epistles, the dual injunctions of Romans 11

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Open Access (free)
Janet Wolff

the Annunciation – Lady Day – is my birthday, 25 March. But still, given the alienness of Christian doctrine and imagery for me, and my especial distaste for representations of the madonna and child (all those grotesque fat babies, often weirdly and horribly adult in their features), it’s a strange affinity. It is only possible because, against all the biblical, theological and iconological evidence, I have never really believed that Gabriel was announcing the Incarnation to the Virgin. Rather it seemed that he was suggesting something more mysterious and more

in Austerity baby
Stephen Turner

Great War led to disillusionment with the idea of progress. The Bishop of Ripon made a much-publicized plea to suspend science until the culture could catch up. 8 And culture was trying to: new ideas about women’s roles, marriage and sex were widely discussed, reaching a peak in Bertrand Russell’s Marriage and Morals , 9 and the response to Russell included a reaffirmation, along with a rethinking, of Christian doctrine. 10 There was a parallel discussion in the United States, in terms of the idea of companionate

in Post-everything
Open Access (free)
The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702
Justin Champion

came from God.98 It was precisely because of the universality of reason and the accessibility of revelation that Toland compounded his heterodoxy by continuing to insist that even the poor could achieve such ‘faith’.99 The bulk of Christianity not mysterious was devoted to an exegesis of scriptural passages to prove Toland’s arguments about the reasonableness of Christian doctrine. Toland scrutinised the use of the word ‘mystery’. Producing a concordance for the word showed that it was commonly used to mean something hidden and obscured, rather than incomprehensible

in Republican learning
The lump-child and its parents in The King of Tars
Jane Gilbert

lady’s lore, a notable omission from Vernon is the Princess’s sermon to the Sultan (A, 841–76) in which she briefly summarises some fundamental points of Christian doctrine. Although the Vernon text advocates an image of femininity which implies that women’s exercise of learning is valid when it brings others to Christ, it suppresses the principal scene in which a female character puts that theory into practice.31 On the secular side, the Vernon redaction shows dislike for and disapproval of the courtly milieu in which its heroine is forced to live. The tournament

in Pulp fictions of medieval England