Theological confrontation with
Apostasy and Jewish identity
Theological confrontation with Christianity
he success of the Christians in defeating the Muslims in the Holy Land,
conquering it and establishing a Christian colony there, particularly in
the Holy City of Jerusalem, was a harsh blow to the Jews from a theological
viewpoint. The theological difficulty, which emerged during the course
of the twelfth century, became a central issue, one which also affected
the status of voluntary converts to Christianity. The Jewish sources
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30
Winifred C. Connerton
Working towards health, Christianity
and democracy: American
colonial and missionary nurses in
Puerto Rico, 1900–301
Winifred C. Connerton
At the turn of the twentieth century American nurses went to
Puerto Rico as members of the Army Nurse Corps, as colonial service workers and as Protestant missionaries. Though the nurses went
as members of very different organisations they all espoused similar messages about America, Christianity and trained nursing. This
chapter explores the overlapping messages of Protestant missionaries and of the United States (US
Assembling and reshaping Christianity
in the Lives of St Cuthbert and
In the previous chapter on the Franks Casket, I started to think
about the way in which a thing might act as an assembly, gathering diverse elements into a distinct whole, and argued that organic
whalebone plays an ongoing role, across time, in this assemblage.
This chapter begins by moving the focus from an animal body (the
whale) to a human (saintly) body. While saints, in early medieval
Christian thought, might be understood as special and powerful
kinds of human
The Enduring Rage of Baldwin and the Education of a
White Southern Baptist Queer
Delivered in Paris at the 2016 International James Baldwin Conference just two weeks
before the killing of 49 individuals at a LGBT nightclub in Orlando, Florida on 26 June
2016, “Relatively Conscious” explores, through the eyes of an LGBT American and the words
of James Baldwin, how separate and unequal life remains for so many within the United
States. Written in the tradition of memoir, it recounts how, just as Paris saved Baldwin
from himself, the writer’s life was transformedupon the discovery of Baldwin.
Reading James Baldwin’s Existential Hindsight in Go Tell It
on the Mountain
This essay reads James Baldwin’s first novel, Go Tell It on the
Mountain, through the lenses of European existentialism and Black
existential thought to arrive at a new understanding of the novel itself as well
as essential stages of its development. Archival sources and close reading
reveal Baldwin’s historically and existentially informed artistic vision,
summed up in the terms hindsight and insight.
His thoughtful, uncomfortable engagement with the past leads to a recuperated
relationship to the community and constitutes existential hindsight, which
informs his inward understanding of himself—his insight. This
investigation draws on various works from Baldwin’s fiction, essays,
interviews, and correspondence to arrive at a better understanding of the
writer’s intellectual and artistic development, focusing especially on
the professed objectives behind, and major revisions of, the novel. I conclude
the essay through a close reading of the conversion scene that constitutes Part
Three of Go Tell It on the Mountain.
Go Tell It on the Mountain sheds light on James Baldwin’s response to his Pentecostal religious inheritance. Baldwin writes protagonist John Grimes’s experience of “salvation” as an act of his own break with his past and the inauguration of a new vocation as authorial witness of his times. This break is premised on the experience of kairos, a form of time that was derived from Baldwin’s experience of Pentecostalism. Through John Grimes’s experience, Baldwin represents a break with the past that begins with the kairotic moment and progresses through the beginnings of self-love and the possibility of freedom enabled by this love. This essay contributes a new perspective on discussions of Baldwin’s representation of time and his relationship to Christianity.
James Baldwin, the Religious Right, and the Moral
In the 1980s, James Baldwin recognized that a major transformation had occurred in the
socio-political functions of religion. His critique adapted accordingly, focusing on the
ways in which religion—particularly white evangelical Christianity—had morphed into a
movement deeply enmeshed with mass media, conservativepolitics, and late capitalism.
Religion in the Reagan era was leveraged, sold, and consumed in ways never before seen,
from charismatic televangelists, to Christian-themed amusement parks, to mega-churches.
The new movement was often characterized as the “religious right” or the “Moral Majority”
and was central to both Reagan’s political coalition as well as the broader culture wars.
For Baldwin, this development had wide-ranging ramifications for society and the
individual. This article draws on Baldwin’s final major essay, “To Crush the Serpent”
(1987), to examine the author’s evolving thoughts on religion, salvation, and
transgression in the context of the Reagan era.
to understanding not just the causes of the genocide but such problems as the level of mortality and testing the theory of double genocide ( Verwimp, 2003 , 2013 ). My own book, Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda , looks in detail at the role of Christian churches in the violence ( Longman, 2010 ).
Others provide detail on specific cases. In Rwanda 1994: Les Politiques du Génocide à Butare , André Guichaoua draws on the research that he compiled for his testimony at the ICTR to discuss in depth the conduct of the genocide in the city of Butare, adding details
be mapped out through the embodiments of the sacred, from the body of Christ and its sacred positioning within Christianity, to the body of the hero whose sacrifice was so integral to the modern nation-state, on to the victim, who became the sacred object for liberal rule. 11 However, countering Girard’s mythical assertion that the sacred allows us to domesticate violence by giving immense meaning to life, what we can alternatively say is there would be no possible way to justify any form of political violence without the sacred object and its worldly claims. Just
The book knits together two of the most significant themes in the social and cultural history of modern Ireland - mass emigration and religious change - and aims to provide fresh insight into both. It addresses the churches' responses to emigration, both in theory and in practice. The book also assesses how emigration impacted on the churches both in relation to their status in Ireland, and in terms of their ability to spread their influence abroad. It first deals with the theoretical positions of the clergy of each denomination in relation to emigration and how they changed over the course of the nineteenth century, as the character of emigration itself altered. It then explores the extent of practical clerical involvement in the temporal aspects of emigration. This includes attempts to prevent or limit it, a variety of facilitation services informally offered by parish clergymen, church-backed moves to safeguard emigrant welfare, clerical advice-giving and clerically planned schemes of migration. Irish monks between the fifth and eighth centuries had spread Christianity all over Europe, and should act as an inspiration to the modern cleric. Tied in with this reading of the past, of course, was a very particular view of the present: the perception that emigration represented the enactment of a providential mission to spread the faith.