Open Access (free)
Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

Nils Freytag

civil servants were subsequently admonished to strictly enforce, banned all forms of pastoral medical therapy. Clergymen in violation of this law were threatened with severe punishment. 16 However, the practice of following and administering this decree was discontinued after some time. In 1841, the chaplain of the Siegburg mental institution, Reverend Löhr, had to ask the Cologne Generalvikar to intercede against the practice of exorcising

in Witchcraft Continued
Diplomacy, cross-border patronage, and the negotiation of subsidy alliances in the north-western part of the Holy Roman Empire (late seventeenth century)
Tilman Haug

, Allemagne, vol. 133, fol. 164r, Servien to Mazarin, 14 July 1656. 17 His political biography is detailed in Margarethe Hintereicher, Georg Christian von Hessen-Homburg (1626–1677): Offizier, Diplomat und Regent in den Jahrzehnten nach dem Dreissigjährigen Krieg (Darmstadt: Hessische Historische Kommission, 1985). 18 Hintereicher, Georg Christian, pp. 89–133; Tilman Haug, Ungleiche Außenbeziehungen und grenzüberschreitende Patronage: Frankreich und die geistlichen Kurfürsten 1648–1679 (Cologne: Böhlau, 2015), pp. 179–192. 194 Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation A

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Hans Peter Broedel

encouraged to continue their education at a school for advanced theology; and Institoris probably studied theology at the studium generale at Cologne, which, after St. Jacques in Paris, was the most prestigious Dominican school in fifteenth-century Europe. There he would have studied and lectured on sacred scripture, the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and the theology of Thomas Aquinas. All in all a degree of Master of Theology required at least fourteen years of higher education, but, since friars were required to teach as lectors at provincial schools for between five and

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
The example of the German principality of Waldeck
Andreas Flurschütz da Cruz

– Gesellschaft – Krieg: Studien zur bellizistischen Disposition des absoluten Fürstenstaates, ed. by Johannes Kunisch (Cologne: Böhlau, 1992), pp. 1–41. 12 Carl Brinkmann, ‘Charles II and the Bishop of Münster in the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–6’, The English Historical Review 21 (1906), 686–698 (p. 686); cf. Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler, ‘Einleitung’, in Protegierte und Protektoren: Asymmetrische politische Beziehungen zwischen Partnerschaft und Dominanz (16. bis frühes 20. Jahrhundert), ed. by Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler (Cologne: Böhlau

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Anuschka Tischer

common features and are, in fact, entangled in their use in the early modern international system. Research on protection could thus 1 Protegierte und Protektoren: Asymmetrische politische Beziehungen zwi­ schen Partnerschaft und Dominanz (16. bis frühes 20. Jahrhundert), ed. by Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler, Externa: Geschichte der Außenbeziehungen in neuen Perspektiven, 9 (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 2016); Rainer Babel, Garde et protection: Der Königsschutz in der französischen Außenpolitik vom 15. bis zum 17. Jahrhundert, Beihefte der Francia, 72

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

Open Access (free)
Christoph Menke in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers

This book focuses on the paradoxical character of law and specifically concerns the structural violence of law as the political imposition of normative order onto a "lawless" condition. The paradox of law which grounds and motivates Christoph Menke's intervention is that law is both the opposite of violence and, at the same time, a form of violence. The book develops its engagement with the paradox of law in two stages. The first shows why, and in what precise sense, the law is irreducibly characterized by structural violence. The second explores the possibility of law becoming self-reflectively aware of its own violence and, hence, of the form of a self-critique of law in view of its own violence. The Book's philosophical claims are developed through analyses of works of drama: two classical tragedies in the first part and two modern dramas in the second part. It attempts to illuminate the paradoxical nature of law by way of a philosophical interpretation of literature. There are at least two normative orders within the European ethical horizon that should be called "legal orders" even though they forego the use of coercion and are thus potentially nonviolent. These are international law and Jewish law. Understanding the relationship between law and violence is one of the most urgent challenges a postmodern critical legal theory faces today. Self-reflection, the philosophical concept that plays a key role in the essay, stands opposed to all forms of spontaneity.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Johan Östling

Third Reich, and among other things he laid down the guiding principles for a new Nazi education of teachers. However, in his writings Baeumler was more preoccupied with the school than with the university. See Barbara Schneider, Die Höhere Schule im Nationalsozialismus (Cologne, 2000). The discovery of Humboldt 65 university. Scholars and scientists from all disciplines had been carried away by enthusiasm for the war and enrolled in the service of the nation. Both students and professors had enlisted and fallen in battle, and ordinary academic work had suffered

in Humboldt and the modern German university