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Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

civil servants were subsequently admonished to strictly enforce, banned all forms of pastoral medical therapy. Clergymen in violation of this law were threatened with severe punishment. 16 However, the practice of following and administering this decree was discontinued after some time. In 1841, the chaplain of the Siegburg mental institution, Reverend Löhr, had to ask the Cologne Generalvikar to intercede against the practice of exorcising

in Witchcraft Continued
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encouraged to continue their education at a school for advanced theology; and Institoris probably studied theology at the studium generale at Cologne, which, after St. Jacques in Paris, was the most prestigious Dominican school in fifteenth-century Europe. There he would have studied and lectured on sacred scripture, the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and the theology of Thomas Aquinas. All in all a degree of Master of Theology required at least fourteen years of higher education, but, since friars were required to teach as lectors at provincial schools for between five and

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft

Third Reich, and among other things he laid down the guiding principles for a new Nazi education of teachers. However, in his writings Baeumler was more preoccupied with the school than with the university. See Barbara Schneider, Die Höhere Schule im Nationalsozialismus (Cologne, 2000). The discovery of Humboldt 65 university. Scholars and scientists from all disciplines had been carried away by enthusiasm for the war and enrolled in the service of the nation. Both students and professors had enlisted and fallen in battle, and ordinary academic work had suffered

in Humboldt and the modern German university

.indd 33 20/08/2014 12:34:43 34 Apostasy and Jewish identity regarding the names of the converts, R. Tam notes, as if in passing, the names of two apostates hailing from different towns: ‘Did you ever hear of a convert named Asher of Cologne or Avran of Sens?’ His answer implies that these were converts from prominent families, that he knew of cases from Germany as well, and that the general public related to these converts to Christianity by labeling them with derogatory names or nicknames in order to avoid calling them by their new Christian names. And, although

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
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Demonological descriptions of male witches

–57. 23 Ibid ., 22–23. 24 Köln, 1480 and Lyons, 1669. See below. 25 Speyer, 1487 (Schnyder fac., Houghton Library Inc. 2367.5, British Library IB 8581); Lyons, 1669 (Bruce Peel Special Collections, University of Alberta, BF 1569 I59 I669; BL 719.1.18); Cologne 1494

in Male witches in early modern Europe
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made their first faith void.” ’ 5 Throughout his life Cochlaeus remained an enthusiastic persecutor of heresy wherever he found it. With unconcealed pleasure he chronicles the decline and fall of the short-lived Anabaptist ‘kingdom of a thousand year’ at Münster (1534–5) – from the excesses of its tailor-turned-king, John of Leiden, to the massacre of his followers. Cochlaeus prides himself on directing the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament in 1525, and

in Luther’s lives

new reality, both in the eyes of the Christian population and for the Jews of France and Germany. Despite the fact that the actual extent of the attacks upon Jews at the end of the eleventh century was limited (only a few cities were affected: Worms, Mainz, Metz, Cologne, Regensburg, Prague, and perhaps Rouen), these events precipitated a psychological Goldin, Apostasy and Jewish identity.indd 22 20/08/2014 12:34:42 Forced conversion during the First Crusade 23 change throughout the region. Evidence of this may be found in Jewish writing from the twelfth

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Still unique or just one in the crowd?

the EU’s ‘historical’ responsibility to deal with them. The oldest of these historical responsibilities is towards the ex-colonies. More recently, the member states seem to share a very powerful sense of responsibility towards Eastern Europe – and it cannot be shirked easily, precisely because of geographic proximity. The Cologne European Council noted in June 1999: The six months since the Vienna meeting [European Council, December 1998] have, in various ways, again clearly brought out the importance of all these regions [Russia, Ukraine, the Western Balkans and

in EU development cooperation
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia

dimension of the Stability Pact signifies an extension of those norms embedded in Dayton and the Kosovo agreements. At the heart of the Stability Pact, launched on 10 June 1999 in Cologne, are norms of democracy, multiculturalism and human rights. The major difference from earlier peace-building initiatives is the broader political agenda to impart them in the region. In the eyes of the pact’s promoters, the norms are viewed as

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security