Open Access (free)
Two contemporary accounts of Martin Luther

This book presents a contemporary, eyewitness account of the life of Martin Luther translated into English. Johannes Cochlaeus (1479–1552) was present in the great hall at the Diet of Worms on April 18, 1521 when Luther made his famous declaration before Emperor Charles V: ‘Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me. Amen’. Afterward, Cochlaeus sought Luther out, met him at his inn, and privately debated with him. Luther wrote of Cochlaeus, ‘may God long preserve this most pious man, born to guard and teach the Gospel of His church, together with His word, Amen’. However, the confrontation left Cochlaeus convinced that Luther was an impious and malevolent man. Over the next twnety-five years, Cochlaeus barely escaped the Peasant's War with his life. He debated with Melanchthon and the reformers of Augsburg. It was Cochlaeus who conducted the authorities to the clandestine printing press in Cologne, where William Tyndale was preparing the first English translation of the New Testament (1525). For an eyewitness account of the Reformation—and the beginnings of the Catholic Counter-Reformation—no other historical document matches the first-hand experience of Cochlaeus. After Luther's death, it was rumoured that demons seized the reformer on his death-bed and dragged him off to Hell. In response to these rumours, Luther's friend and colleague Philip Melanchthon wrote and published a brief encomium of the reformer in 1548. Cochlaeus consequently completed and published his monumental life of Luther in 1549.

Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family
Author: Joe Turner

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Nils Freytag

civil servants were subsequently admonished to strictly enforce, banned all forms of pastoral medical therapy. Clergymen in violation of this law were threatened with severe punishment. 16 However, the practice of following and administering this decree was discontinued after some time. In 1841, the chaplain of the Siegburg mental institution, Reverend Löhr, had to ask the Cologne Generalvikar to intercede against the practice of exorcising

in Witchcraft Continued
Diplomacy, cross-border patronage, and the negotiation of subsidy alliances in the north-western part of the Holy Roman Empire (late seventeenth century)
Tilman Haug

, Allemagne, vol. 133, fol. 164r, Servien to Mazarin, 14 July 1656. 17 His political biography is detailed in Margarethe Hintereicher, Georg Christian von Hessen-Homburg (1626–1677): Offizier, Diplomat und Regent in den Jahrzehnten nach dem Dreissigjährigen Krieg (Darmstadt: Hessische Historische Kommission, 1985). 18 Hintereicher, Georg Christian, pp. 89–133; Tilman Haug, Ungleiche Außenbeziehungen und grenzüberschreitende Patronage: Frankreich und die geistlichen Kurfürsten 1648–1679 (Cologne: Böhlau, 2015), pp. 179–192. 194 Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation A

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Open Access (free)
Hans Peter Broedel

encouraged to continue their education at a school for advanced theology; and Institoris probably studied theology at the studium generale at Cologne, which, after St. Jacques in Paris, was the most prestigious Dominican school in fifteenth-century Europe. There he would have studied and lectured on sacred scripture, the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and the theology of Thomas Aquinas. All in all a degree of Master of Theology required at least fourteen years of higher education, but, since friars were required to teach as lectors at provincial schools for between five and

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
The example of the German principality of Waldeck
Andreas Flurschütz da Cruz

– Gesellschaft – Krieg: Studien zur bellizistischen Disposition des absoluten Fürstenstaates, ed. by Johannes Kunisch (Cologne: Böhlau, 1992), pp. 1–41. 12 Carl Brinkmann, ‘Charles II and the Bishop of Münster in the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–6’, The English Historical Review 21 (1906), 686–698 (p. 686); cf. Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler, ‘Einleitung’, in Protegierte und Protektoren: Asymmetrische politische Beziehungen zwischen Partnerschaft und Dominanz (16. bis frühes 20. Jahrhundert), ed. by Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler (Cologne: Böhlau

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Anuschka Tischer

common features and are, in fact, entangled in their use in the early modern international system. Research on protection could thus 1 Protegierte und Protektoren: Asymmetrische politische Beziehungen zwi­ schen Partnerschaft und Dominanz (16. bis frühes 20. Jahrhundert), ed. by Tilman Haug, Nadir Weber, and Christian Windler, Externa: Geschichte der Außenbeziehungen in neuen Perspektiven, 9 (Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 2016); Rainer Babel, Garde et protection: Der Königsschutz in der französischen Außenpolitik vom 15. bis zum 17. Jahrhundert, Beihefte der Francia, 72

in Subsidies, diplomacy, and state formation in Europe, 1494–1789
Johan Östling

Third Reich, and among other things he laid down the guiding principles for a new Nazi education of teachers. However, in his writings Baeumler was more preoccupied with the school than with the university. See Barbara Schneider, Die Höhere Schule im Nationalsozialismus (Cologne, 2000). The discovery of Humboldt 65 university. Scholars and scientists from all disciplines had been carried away by enthusiasm for the war and enrolled in the service of the nation. Both students and professors had enlisted and fallen in battle, and ordinary academic work had suffered

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Simha Goldin

.indd 33 20/08/2014 12:34:43 34 Apostasy and Jewish identity regarding the names of the converts, R. Tam notes, as if in passing, the names of two apostates hailing from different towns: ‘Did you ever hear of a convert named Asher of Cologne or Avran of Sens?’ His answer implies that these were converts from prominent families, that he knew of cases from Germany as well, and that the general public related to these converts to Christianity by labeling them with derogatory names or nicknames in order to avoid calling them by their new Christian names. And, although

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe