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The Colonial Medical Service in British Africa

A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.

Army wives and domesticating the ‘native’
Neil Macmaster

carried into the French colonies, most notably during the war in Indochina, where both Massu and Salan had served as military nurses. The French forces in Vietnam developed a programme of welfare work with indigenous women, and after 1954 this experience was brought into Algeria. It was French policy in Africa, Indochina and elsewhere to encourage wives of the military and colonial service to volunteer for welfare work with native women since they had unique access and, surrounded by servants, had the free time to do so.9 In Lebanon and Syria during the French mandate

in Burning the veil
Open Access (free)
Looking beyond the state
Anna Greenwood

sustain. As well as deconstructing the idea of a unified and unidirectional Colonial Service, grouping these eight essays together in one collection also answers recent demands for more comparative studies in the history of medicine, as opposed to the ‘single-site’ case studies that have hitherto dominated the discipline. Although concentrating only upon British territories in

in Beyond the state
Jane Brooks

The chapter considers the civilian world into which the Q.A.s returned at the end of the war and explores the options they faced. It begins with the immediate aftermath of war and the opportunities for interesting and worthwhile work that would only exacerbate the nursing sisters’ difficulties on demobilisation. This is followed by a consideration of the return to Britain and the options open for professional practice. The chapter argues that for some the option of interesting work remained, either in the colonial service or the military. However the main professional opening for returning nurses was the crisis ridden civilian hospital system that wanted and recruited cheap, malleable workers; this was not an attractive choice for demobbed nursing sisters. The chapter argues that despite nursing being a female dominated profession, the ideology that encouraged women to return to the home in the aftermath of war had significant ramifications for demobilised nurses. The social structure precluded married women from working outside the home and funds for postgraduate training available to returning male doctors were not offered to nurses. As the chapter maintains, most nursing sisters married, leaving the profession without their considerable talents and new ways of practicing.

in Negotiating nursing
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa
Anna Greenwood
Harshad Topiwala

way Indians were squeezed out of government positions offers valuable insights that can burst the historical myth of a Colonial Service staffed by the ‘thin white line’ famously described by Anthony Kirk-Greene in 1980. 7 Although, to be sure, the British colonial state in Africa principally consisted in its middle and higher echelons of white, elite personnel, in fact

in Beyond the state
Sabine Clarke

Office to oversee and coordinate work in areas such as health and agriculture. A Chief Medical Adviser was appointed in 1926 and an Agricultural Adviser in 1929, and this helped to raise the profile of technical matters in London. In 1934 and 1935 the Colonial Office unified the regional branches of the colonial services that employed staff for agriculture, veterinary medicine, forestry and medicine with the intention of giving better career prospects for officers as they could now move to positions across the whole Colonial Empire. To further raise the prestige of

in Science at the end of empire
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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

The pastoral responses of the Irish churches to emigration
Sarah Roddy

Church clergyman offered the General Assembly news of ‘spiritual destitution’ among Ulster emigrants in Canada which shocked it into action. In 1846 P. L. Millar ‘pressed upon the Assembly the necessity of encouraging her licentiates and students to devote themselves to the religious instruction of that people’.97 Although Millar did not appear to specify how that was to be achieved, and he may, indeed, have simply been making a bid on behalf of his own newly constituted sect for any Ulster missionaries who volunteered for colonial service, an exploratory committee

in Population, providence and empire
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet
Sue Hawkins

nursing at the end of the century (according to a writer in Nursing Mirror), see S. Hawkins, Nursing and Women’s Labour in the Nineteenth Century: A Quest for Independence (Abingdon: Routledge, 2010), p. 167. 27 For more on nursing in the Anglo-Boer War see: K. Spires, ‘Nurses in the Boer War’ (PhD thesis, University of the South Bank, 2013); E.  van Heyningen, The Concentration Camps of the Anglo-Boer War:  A  Social History (Cape Town: Jacana, 2013). 28 B. M.  Robertson, Angels in Africa:  A  Memoir of Nursing with the Colonial Service (New York: The Radcliffe Press

in Colonial caring
Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre
Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti
, and
Cecilia Sironi

Force had twenty-two field hospitals. In addition, the Colonial Service ran thirty hospitals, each with a bacteriological laboratory and a radiology department. All health services in Ethiopia were coordinated by a General Health Directorate directed by the Colonial Ministry created by the Fascist government; and services were provided by a range of health specialists including, surgeons, physicians, veterinarians, pharmacists and nursing staff. Among the causes of death during the military campaign, only 64 per cent were due to the consequences of war wounds; the

in Colonial caring