The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

Open Access (free)
Individuals acting together
Keith Graham

Introduction The background (though most emphatically not the topic) of this discussion is the liberal/communitarian debate. Many believe that debate has now run its course, but it has left an indelible mark on the way that perennial questions about the relations between individual and community are framed. In this chapter I attempt to articulate the idea of one kind of community, pertinent to social

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Janelle Joseph

Diasporas are communities positioned at the interstices of (1) a (mythical) homeland or local community where people are from, (2) the location where they reside, and (3) a globally dispersed, yet collectively identified group. These communities are neither homogeneous nor innate. A sense of community, Brubaker (2004) notes in Ethnicity without Groups , is often objectified as a “thing

in Sport in the Black Atlantic
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology
Monika Milosavljević

1 How archaeological communities think: re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology Monika Milosavljević Both thinking and facts are changeable, if only because changes in thinking manifest themselves in changed facts. Conversely, fundamentally new facts can be discovered only through new thinking. (Fleck, 1981: 50–51; translated by Fred Bradley and Thaddeus J. Trenn). Introduction Serbian archaeology offers fertile ground in which to apply Fleck’s concepts of thought-collectives and thought

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The PRIA experience
Mandakini Pant

4 Building community-based research capacity with communities: the PRIA experience Mandakini Pant Introduction Indian society has been traditionally divided into endogamous hereditary groups (castes) ranked by ritual status. The castes in lower hierarchy were historically associated with ritually impure occupations such as killing, handling of animal cadavers or night soil. Social distance from upper castes was maintained by restrictions of contact and commensality with members of upper castes. Castebased positioning created caste-based inequalities. Marginalized

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)
Complementary or incompatible ideals?
Andrew Mason

MCK7 1/10/2003 10:28 AM Page 132 7 City life and community: complementary or incompatible ideals? Andrew Mason The words ‘city’ and ‘community’ conjure up very different images. The city is often pictured as an arena where diverse social groups or networks may co-exist in an atmosphere of mutual toleration, while the community is seen as a cohesive unit where conformity is fostered at the expense of diversity, thereby breeding intolerance. So understood, community is an unattractive ideal, unlikely to endear itself to those with liberal sympathies. It may be

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Science shops and policy development
Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder, and Norbert Steinhaus

6 Embedding community–university partnerships: science shops and policy  development Eileen Martin, Emma McKenna, Henk Mulder and Norbert Steinhaus Science shops originated in the Netherlands in the 1970s as part of the wider democratization-of-science movement. The gap between civil society and traditional knowledge providers was recognized by Dutch students, who established relationships with civil society organizations (CSOs) to bring their research needs into universities where they could be addressed by students as part of their academic course of study. The

in Knowledge, democracy and action
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

128 DISABILITY IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4 DISABILITY, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY The risks of coalmining affected not just the working lives of British miners during the nineteenth century, but also their lives beyond the pit. Many contemporary commentators sought to interpret the experiences of miners and their communities through the prism of their susceptibility to danger in the workplace. For example, in his comparative statistical study of Britain’s ‘dangerous classes’, Tactics for the Times (1849), Jelinger C. Symons calculated that rates of criminality

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Mandakini Pant

10 PRIA educates the community Mandakini Pant A.  Women Political Empowerment and Leadership (WPEL) Gender is a salient factor in participation and representation in democratic decentralized governance. The Constitutional Amendment Acts (CAAs) enabled 33 per cent representation of women in panchayats and municipalities. While Article 243G and 243W of the Constitution empowered the state legislatures to endow panchayats/municipalities with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government, the provision of

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Abstract only

Epidemic A Focus on Community Engagement Marcis Frédéric Le Enria Luisa Abramowitz Sharon Saez Almudena-Mari Faye Sylvain Landry B