2 Forced conversion during the First Crusade Apostasy and Jewish identity Forced conversion during the First Crusade T he tendency that emerges from Rashi’s words reflects a decisive leadership approach, establishing a clear direction of attempting to return converts to Christianity to Judaism. The self-definition of Judaism its leaders sought to establish was that of a religion that felt confident in its ability to deal with Christian theological claims and in its political ability to deal with the threat of forced conversion. This situation changed during

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe
Editor’s Introduction

Introduction The first thing to say about liberal order is that it hasn’t been that liberal. Since the Second World War, the production of subjects obeisant to the rule of liberal institutions has depended on illiberal and authoritarian methods – not least on the periphery of the world system, where conversion to Western reason has been pursued with particularly millenarian zeal, and violence. The wishful idea of an ever more open and global market economy has been continuously undermined by its champions, with their subsidies and monopolistic

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

conversion of all the peoples of the world to Western reason and ethics. At the same time, it gives up its role as guardian of international ethics and arbiter of all the world’s conflicts. This does not mean that it stops projecting the superiority of its national values, but, acting as a nation of ‘chosen people’, it opts for the unilateral exercise of its power, through force and the active division and dispersion of its competitors, boycotting every kind of multilateral or regional agreement or bloc, from the European Union to UNASUR, from NAFTA to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

January 2018, ‘ conversion of fixed-term (X) appointment to indefinite (A) appointment is suspended’. Moreover: ‘area staff members with ten years of continuous service as of January 18, 2018 or later, and eligible for an indefinite appointment, will instead be considered for extension of their fixed-term appointment in line with applicable rules and instructions at the time of the extension’. The experiences of one of my interviewees 17 are particularly pertinent when tracing the impacts of this circular on UNRWA employees. This

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
‘Are you still my brother?’

In this study, the various aspects of the way the Jews regarded themselves in the context of the lapse into another religion will be researched fully for the first time. We will attempt to understand whether they regarded the issue of conversion with self-confidence or with suspicion, whether their attitude was based on a clear theological position or on doubt and the coping with the problem as part of the process of socialization will be fully analysed. In this way, we will better understand how the Jews saw their own identity whilst living as a minority among the Christian majority, whose own self-confidence was constantly becoming stronger from the 10th to the 14th century until they eventually ousted the Jews completely from the places they lived in, England, France and large parts of Germany. This aspect of Jewish self-identification, written by a person who converted to Christianity, can help clarify a number of

conversion to Christianity arising, not from the violent struggle of the Christians against Judaism but rather from their ability to persuade and to convince. The success of Christianity led to the phenomenon of Jews who converted to Christianity of their own free will, of a type whom the Jews could no longer label as ‘forced converts.’ During the course of the twelfth century we find evidence of such converts to Christianity in the Jewish sources. One such example appears in an inquiry addressed to Rabbi Ya’akov ben Meir, Rabbenu Tam (ca. 1100–71, Ramerupt, northern

in Apostasy and Jewish identity in High Middle Ages Northern Europe

This book provides a detailed consideration of the history of racing in British culture and society, and explores the cultural world of racing during the interwar years. The book shows how racing gave pleasure even to the supposedly respectable middle classes and gave some working-class groups hope and consolation during economically difficult times. Regular attendance and increased spending on betting were found across class and generation, and women too were keen participants. Enjoyed by the royal family and controlled by the Jockey Club and National Hunt Committee, racing's visible emphasis on rank and status helped defend hierarchy and gentlemanly amateurism, and provided support for more conservative British attitudes. The mass media provided a cumulative cultural validation of racing, helping define national and regional identity, and encouraging the affluent consumption of sporting experience and a frank enjoyment of betting. The broader cultural approach of the first half of the book is followed by an exploration if the internal culture of racing itself.

Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples

struggle in confronting British racism. Moody’s Christian faith The most decisive influence in Moody’s life was his conversion to Christianity as a teenager in the late 1890s. Thereafter reading the Bible, prayer and the practice of a Christian life underpinned his life. He did little that was not accompanied by lengthy prayer and this often gave him a

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain

work honestly and fitly for their appointed vocations’. The result was a gradual conversion of ‘young savages into respectable men and women’. 84 Such reforms could with benefit be introduced in India, although, she added, the lot of a class even lower than these – the roving street Arabs – will continue to exercise the ‘best and deepest thinkers, and students of political economy’. 85 So too will

in The other empire

agreeable visit. How could they be otherwise? (Sunny, p. ix) Contradictorily, at the same time she states that she is publishing her travel letters only to correct ‘the persevering and deliberate attempts, in certain quarters, to misrepresent the circumstances which are here given’. (Sunny, p. ix). Letter XVII is entirely devoted to a defence of the Duchess, with Stowe extolling the ‘improvements’ in the estate (on which she had yet to set foot), detailing the mileage of new roads, the number of banks, schools, post offices, and even describing the complete conversion of

in Special relationships