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From Kant to Nietzsche
Author: Andrew Bowie

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

Andrew Bowie

1 Modern philosophy and the emergence of aesthetic theory: Kant Self-consciousness, knowledge and freedom The importance attributed to aesthetic questions in recent philosophy becomes easier to grasp if one considers the reasons for the emergence of modern aesthetic theory. Kant’s main work on aesthetics, the ‘third Critique’, the Critique of Judgement (CJ) (1790), forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason (CPR) (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1787).1 In order to understand the significance of the CJ

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
Self-defence, honour and philosophical suicide
Elwin Hofman

control of itself and oriented towards the world, without much depth. If many Enlightenment philosophers stressed the importance of feeling for moral behaviour, many also suggested that reasonable behaviour was morally superior. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant most thoroughly explored the matter in his Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) and again in his Critique of Practical Reason (1788). Kant applied the principle of universalism to morality and concluded that people should ‘act so that the maxim of your will can always at the same time hold

in Trials of the self
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

area of private life as possible over which the state has no right to trespass. Indeed, he declared that the right to the greatest possible degree of freedom was second only to the right to life. Immanuel Kant Running through Kant’s many works, most notably Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Critique of Practical Reason (1788), Critique of Judgement (1790), is the linking of

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Gary Banham

precedent of L. W. Beck. See Beck, A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), ch. XII, and for an account of the reasons for its particular place in the architectonic of the second critique see Banham, Kant, ch. 1. It is almost a commonplace for contemporary critics of Kant to suggest that he has little room for feeling in his account of moral motivation, an accusation that seems to me quite false. For a critical assessment of Kant’s position see N. Sherman, ‘The place of emotions in Kantian morality’ in O. Flanagan

in The new aestheticism
Open Access (free)
Between Adorno and Heidegger
Joanna Hodge

indeed to Adorno’s recasting of Kantian antinomy as dialectic of enlightenment see G. Rose, Hegel contra Sociology (London: Athlone, 1981). 8 The notion of antinomy here has a history going back to the writings of Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason (1781, 1787), in which he analyses the antinomies of the understanding with respect to the deployment of concepts. Kant sets out an antinomy of practical reason in his Critique of Practical Reason, which concerns the different trajectories of an analysis of virtue and of happiness respectively. The argument considers the

in The new aestheticism
Jes Wienberg

beautiful (Allen 1975 : 1ff, 48ff, 78f). Subsequently, the triad figured in many contexts, for instance in the work of the philosopher Immanuel Kant in his three “critique” books – critique of pure reason, critique of practical reason, and critique of judgement; that is, his inquiry into the conditions for knowledge (Kant 1781 (German); 1998 (English)), ethics (Kant 1785 (German); 1998 (English)), and aesthetics (Kant 1790 (German); 2000 (English)). In the poet and theologist Esaias Tegnér, the concepts of the triad became the true, the right, and the beautiful

in Heritopia