Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making addresses debates on liberal peace and the policies of peacebuilding through a theoretical and empirical study of resistance in peacebuilding contexts. Examining the case of ‘Africa’s World War’ in the DRC, it locates resistance in the experiences of war, peacebuilding and state-making by exploring discourses, violence and everyday forms of survival as acts that attempt to challenge or mitigate such experiences. The analysis of resistance offers a possibility to bring the historical and sociological aspects of both peacebuilding and the case of the DRC, providing new nuanced understanding of these processes and the particular case.
interdependencies – often invisible to the reader – that influence the
accounts of such conflicts. 2
Drawing on my own experience as a journalist and independent researcher who has
worked regularly – though not exclusively – in eastern DemocraticRepublicofCongo (DRC) since 2012, I considered the work of a journalist reporting
on the DRC from four different perspectives based on:
my experience as a journalist who wrote articles on armed conflict in
All of the authors contributing to this issue of Journal of Humanitarian Affairs (JHA) agreed to write articles elaborating on the presentations they gave at the international conference hosted by FMSH (Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme) and MSF-CRASH (Médecins Sans Frontières – Centre de Réflexion sur l’Action et les Savoirs Humanitaires) on 20–22 March 2019 at the Hôtel de Lauzun in Paris. The title of the conference was ‘Extreme violence: investigate, rescue, judge. Syria, Rwanda, DemocraticRepublicofCongo’. This issue also includes a recent text
responses. Negotiations here take on their full meaning, far beyond simplistic visions
of the notion of community. While the latter is introduced as a maze of at times
diverging interests, negotiations are seen as a crucial step in securing consent. These
appear all the more essential at a time when the responders to the Ebola epidemic in the
DemocraticRepublicofCongo were confronted with multiple security incidents, including
attacks on health centres and the deaths and kidnappings of health professionals
enabled by organisations that rely on public goodwill for funding and
support’(page 49). She highlights that the risks of speaking out are compounded
by racial hierarchies in the sector which mean some women are less likely to be
believed. The recent investigative reporting by The New Humanitarian and the Thomson
Reuters Foundation on the sexual abuse experienced by women in the DemocraticRepublicofCongo during the humanitarian response to the Ebola crisis has yet again illustrated
considerable information about RPF violence in the DemocraticRepublicofCongo in the 1996–97 and 1998–2003 wars ( Umutesi, 2000 ; Bradol and Le Pape, 2017 ) 2 but that violence falls outside the timeframe considered by Leave None to Tell . Similarly, numerous recent works have explored the violent and authoritarian nature of RPF rule since 1994 ( Reyntjens, 2013 ). 3 Not much additional data has appeared regarding RPF violence from 1990–94. An insider account by RPF dissident Abdul Ruzibiza both accuses Kagame of organising the assassination of Habyarimana and argues
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith
( 2011 ), ‘ Sexual and Gender Based Violence
against Men in the DemocraticRepublicofCongo: Effects on Survivors, Their
Families and the Community ’, Medicine,
Conflict and Survival , 27 : 4 ,
227 – 46 .
Chynoweth , S.
K. ( 2017 ),
‘We Keep It In Our Heart’: Sexual Violence against Men
and Boys in the Syria Crisis
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
has been the case with UNHCR
in the DemocraticRepublicofCongo, for example ( Bradley, 2016 : 61). Notably, the main guidelines on the
use of armed escorts by humanitarians specifically exclude consideration of the
transportation of the wider civilian population ( IASC, 2013 : 2).
With the exception of the ICRC, most of what humanitarian agencies do under the
rubric of civilian protection is not aimed at changing the behaviour of armed
wasn’t until 2013, when two ACTED employees were kidnapped in an area of
Syria where we were also present, that the directorate and Board of Directors
met to set up a crisis unit.
Task Two: Developing a Risk-Management Methodology for the Field
From 2012, I organised one-day risk-analysis workshops during each of my visits
(be it Colombia, Myanmar, Algeria, the Sahel or the DemocraticRepublicof
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
. ( 2017 ), ‘Bringing History Back In: Past, Present, and Conflict in Rwanda and the Eastern DemocraticRepublicofCongo’ , The Journal of African History , 58 : 3 , 465 – 87 .
Mosse , D. ( 2005 ), Cultivating Development: An Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice ( London : Pluto Press ).
Mudimbe , V. Y. ( 1988 ), The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge ( Bloomington : Indiana University Press ).
MSF-OCA ( 2006 ), ‘Expat guidelines DRC’ . Internal archives .
MSF-OCA ( 2009 ), ‘Kitchanga specific security plan