Paul G. Lewis

10 Central and eastern Europe paul g. lewis The passage of over ten years since the first fully competitive elections should have succeeded in putting the progress of democratization in post-communist Europe into clear perspective. By now we might expect to have a reasonably firm comprehension of how far democratization has proceeded, why – if its achievements are differentiated – it has gone further in some countries than others, and which events and processes have driven democratic change. The looking-glass of democratization studies should in this sense have

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Zuzana Jezerska

THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE 8 Gender awareness and the national machineries in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe zuzana jezerska Introduction: the basic problem of identification and terminology The countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) saw fundamental changes to their political and social systems towards the end of the twentieth century. The processes of change affected most aspects of the social and political lives of the citizens of these countries. However, men and women experienced differently the burdens and gains of

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

throughout movies produced by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), private charities and state-funded agencies during humanitarian operations launched in Eastern Europe after World War I. More specifically, it examines the performativity of moving images in making public claims, forging and channeling specific sensitivities among ephemeral audiences who gathered to watch these films. The ‘technologies of witnessing’ ( McLagan, 2006 : 191) offered by cinema not only allowed audiences to delve into the testimonial function of such images, but also to question

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

; Jenkinson, 2016 , 2018 ). Meanwhile on the Eastern Front, at one point, one-third of the Serbian population was on the move along with hundreds of thousands of Italian and Greek refugees in the Mediterranean and Balkans. Farther north, equally great numbers of Jewish, Armenian, and Turkish refugees traveled along the Eastern European border with Russia ( Cabanes, 2014 ). Many of Europe’s refugees had become stateless through having been expelled by conquering armies, and as documentation linking people to countries was not common ( Cabanes, 2014 ; Ngai, 2004 ). By the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
Lauren Harris

obligation to provide humanitarian assistance wherever it is needed’ ( International Committee of the Red Cross, 1994 : 1). Humanitarian Situation in the DPRK The DPRK made its first large-scale appeal for international humanitarian aid in 1995. Prior to this, the country was a habitual recipient of fraternal aid from the Soviet Union, China and Eastern Europe. North Korean founder Kim Il Sung’s economy needed aid at first to rebuild after the Korean War, and then to sustain itself. While Kim Il Sung’s son and successor Kim Jong Il, and grandson and current

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle
Sarah Martin
, and
Henri Myrttinen

-tag uniforms, brandishing weapons and – not uncommonly – speaking in faux-foreign accents. (Interestingly, two of us and one informant described HEAT experiences eight years apart where trainers imitated Eastern European or Caucasian accents, suggesting an awareness that adopting African or Middle Eastern personas might be crossing a line. 26 ) One interviewee, an Arab woman who acts in simulations, described being encouraged to ‘be more Arabic’: ‘It’s very stereotypical – woman

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From model to symbol

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.

Polio in Eastern Europe
Dora Vargha

3 Vaccination and the communist state: polio in Eastern Europe Dora Vargha In December 1959, Hungary introduced into its national immunisation programme the Sabin vaccine, the live poliovirus vaccine that has been the tool of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative since 1988. This campaign put Hungary in the front line of polio vaccination with live virus vaccines along with the Soviet

in The politics of vaccination
Still unique or just one in the crowd?
Karen E. Smith

EUD4 10/28/03 2:41 PM Page 60 4 The ACP in the European Union’s network of regional relationships: still unique or just one in the crowd? Karen E. Smith This chapter analyses the European Union’s relations with five broad regional groupings: the ACP countries, the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. The Union prefers to deal with third countries collectively. It lays out regional strategies, sets up aid programmes on a regional basis and concludes specific kinds of agreement with countries in a particular region. The EU has important

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
Catherine Baker

region Just as anti-racist movements often struggle to discuss ‘racism’ as structural oppression rather than individual prejudice (Lentin 2004 ), studies of the Yugoslav region (and eastern European studies in general) struggle to thread together discussions of race. Often, texts and histories where race should come into view are scattered throughout the literature, rather than being connected into the kind of conversation that already exists about modernity, orientalism and postcoloniality in the Balkans. And yet, this well-established conversation

in Race and the Yugoslav region