Open Access (free)
An actor-network theory perspective

In today’s world, we are offered a constantly expanding number of technologies to integrate into our lives. We now utilise a range of interconnected technologies at work, at home and at leisure. The realm of sport is no exception, where new technologies or enhancements are available to athletes, coaches, scientists, umpires, governing bodies and broadcasters. However, this book argues that in a world where time has become a precious commodity and numerous options are always on offer, functionality is no longer enough to drive their usage within elite sports training, competition and broadcasting. Consistent with an actor-network theory approach as developed by Bruno Latour, John Law, Michele Callon and Annemarie Mol, the book shows how those involved in sport must grapple with a unique set of understandings and connections in order to determine the best combination of technologies and other factors to serve their particular purpose. This book uses a case study approach to demonstrate how there are multiple explanations and factors at play in the use of technology that cannot be reduced to singular explanations like performance enhancement or commercialisation. Specific cases examined include doping, swimsuits, GPS units, Hawk-Eye and kayaks, along with broader areas such as the use of sports scientists in training and the integration of new enhancements in broadcasting. In all cases, the book demonstrates how multiple actors can affect the use or non-use of technology.

Open Access (free)
Which technologies are improved, and how?

, other authors have been surprised at athletes’ lack of knowledge or interest in new technology (see, for example, Butryn, 2003 ), Trabal comes to the realisation that whether an athlete or coach is interested in technology is almost the wrong question. Instead, he reveals how the network of elite sport contains a huge number of components and it is impossible for athletes/coaches to spend all the time they would like on every one of these. For athletes, time is a commodity, and they must be careful how they use this

in Sport and technology

celebrations of the transition from colonial rule. The stadium also represented the government's prioritization of elite sport and signalled its intention that its construction would enable Zambia to host the All Africa Games. From the earliest days of independence, sport was therefore seen as a symbol of Zambia's developing national identity, aspirations which were shared with many other African countries emerging from colonialism (Nugent, 2004

in Localizing global sport for development

hundreds of dollars, these have the drawbacks of being hot and humid and increasing the production of CO 2 , which undermines the effect of the tent. Acquiring a device that overcomes these barriers can run to US$100,000 (pers. comm. Michael Hamlin, 2013). These costs mean that it is only athletes or nations who are prepared to invest heavily in elite sport, and therefore those who commonly sit at the top of the medal table, who can afford these devices. Beamish and Ritchie ( 2006 ) describe how inequalities produced by

in Sport and technology

been the most influential in black-boxing doping is the medical profession. Lopez ( 2012 , p. 64) claims that the drive to spurn doping was led by: a group of physicians – often former elite athletes – involved in elite sport as medical advisors who spearheaded the cultural revolution which in the 1960s turned doping from a more or less accepted (and, for some, even desirable) practice into an intolerable violation of the spirit of sport. Lopez

in Sport and technology
Open Access (free)
Narratives of balance and moderation at the limits of human performance

Medicine in Cambridge, with an all-male speaker list, concluded that ‘the time had come to observe the reaction of women as well as of men’, but none of the attendees went on to design field studies that would include women in extreme environments. 28 Studying men was not just an intellectual default, it was the easiest option; women's participation in elite sport was extremely limited in the first half of the century, and they were effectively barred – through legal means, soft power and social pressure – from routinely

in Balancing the self